Exam 3 & Key - Fall 2003 MPP3202

Exam 3 & Key - Fall 2003 MPP3202 - HPR—BS—EBB4 14:...

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Unformatted text preview: HPR—BS—EBB4 14: 36 HEFILTH SCIENCE L I BRFIRY 5738841421 P . lle/ 13 Student name: Student number: TA name: Thurs/Fri“ ELEMENTS OF PHYSIOLOGY 3“1 Examination November 5, 2003 Fill in the top of the question sheet and answer sheet. Include your TA”s name and lab day on the question sheet. We only need your name and TA’s name on the top to the answer sheet. Yen don’t need to fill in any circles on the front page. Circle the letter that best answers the question sheet and fill in the appmptiate answer circle en the answer sheet. (A=1, Baa, (2:3, 13:4, E=5) Each answer is worth 2 points. Turn in both the question and answer sheet. Staple the answer sheet to the back of the question sheet with the answer circles facing out. HPR—BS—EBB4 14: 36 HEFILTH SCIENCE L I BRFIRY 5738841421 P . [32/ 13 1. How is the aorta best described? A. It returns blood to the heart from the head and arms. B. It conducts blood fi-om the lungs to the heart. C. It is the only artery that carries blood of low oxygen content. D. It is the largest artery in the body. 2. Which statement best describes the endothelial cell layer of blood vessels? A. It is the principal regulator of blood vessel diameter. B. It is responsible for maintaining blood pressure during diastole. C. It produces paracrine factors that influence nearby cells. D. It is connective tissue that maintains vessel integrity during the cardiac cycle. 3. Which statement best describes the smooth muscle layer of blood vessels? A. It is the principal regulator of blood vessel diameter. B. it is responsible for maintaining blood pressure during diastole. C. It produces paracrine factors that influence nearby cells. D. It is connective tissue that maintains vessel integrity during the cardiac cycle. 4. In which part of the circulatory system does most exchange of nutrients, gases and waste take place? A. the arteries B. the arterioles C. the capillaries D. the veins 5. Which of the following parts of the heart’s conduction system are in the correct sequence of activation during the cardiac cycle? A. sinoatrial (SA) node, bundle of His, right and left bundle branches, atrioventricular (AV) node, Purkinje fibers B. AV node, SA node, right and left bundle branches, bundle of His, Purkinjc fibers C. SA node, AV node,Purkinje fibers, right and left bundle branches, bundle of His D. SA node, AV node, bundle of His, right and lefl bundle branches, Purlcinje fibers FIF'R-IZIS-EIZIIZM 14:37 HEFILTH SCIENCE LIBRF‘IR'T' 5738841421 REG/13 Questions 6-8 refer to the figure below which represents a normal Lead II electrocardiogram. K 2P —-r I Haw-s S fWEE’tIfiL' 6. What causes the QRS complex? A. atrial depolarization B. atrial repolarization C. ventricular depolarization D. ventricular repolarization 7. What causes the T wave? A. atrial depolarization B. atrial repolarizaticn C. ventricular depolarization D. ventricular repolarization 8. What happens during the PR interval? A. The ventricles fill. B. The ventricles empty. C. Systolic blood pressure is reached. D. The ventricles depolarize. 9. What is tachycardia? A. a slow heart rate B. a rapid heart rate C. an irregular heart rate ‘ D. uncoordinated contractions of cardiac myocytes HPR—BS—EBB4 14: 3'? HEFILTH SCIENCE L I BRFIRY 5738841421 P . [34/ 13 10. Where is the heart’s pacemaker normally located? A. the bundle of His B. the AV node C. the Purkinje fibers D. the SA. node 11. How are action potentials in cardiac pacemaker cells similar to those in cardiac myocytes? A. In both tissues there is no true resting potential. B. In both tissues most of depolarization is due to Na+ influx. C. In both tissues most of depolarization is due to Ca4+ influx. D. In both tissues parasympathetic input lengthens action potentials. 12. Which of the following is NOT a means by which cardiac output can be changed? A. change vagal nerve activity B. induce quanta] summation in cardiac myocytes C. change cardiac pacemaker activity D. occupy beta 1 receptors on cardiac myocytes 13. What is a prominent similarity between skeletal and cardiac muscle cells? A. Both are innervated by alpha motor neurons. B. Both are stimulated by acetyleholine- C. Both types of cells are connected to neighboring cells by gap junctions. D. Both are striated muscle cells in which Ca-H- controls actin-myosin interactions. 14. Which statement best describes the valves of the heart? A. They respond to pressure difl'erences and allow passage of blood in only one direction. B. They open when papillary muscles contract and close when those muscles relax. C. They operate by pressure dfierences and allow blood movement in either direction. D. They are stimulated by norepinephrine released fiom sympathetic nerve terminals. HPR-ES-EEE4 14:37 HEHLTH SCIENCE LIBRHRY 5738841421 Questions 15-17 refer to the ventricular function curve shown below. ('20 3 meeumago / FREESQRE ( IM M Li' Z 5?) loo IQ) VENTM cu Leta, Vane: ME" (.14 I) 15. What is happening during the phase marked 1'? A. The ventricles are contracting. B. The ventricles are filling. C. The ventricles are empty. D. The ventricles are depolarizing. 16. What is the stroke volume? A. about 50 m] B. about 75 ml C. about 100 ml D. about 125 ml 17. What happens at the point indicated by the arrow? A. The aortic valve opens. B. The aortic valve closes. C. The atrioventricular (AV) valve opens. D. The AV valve closes. 18. What is an important functional result of the long refi'actory periods in cardiac muscle? A. There is no temporal summation in cardiac muscle. 13. There is no quanta] summation in cardiac muscle. C. Tetanus cannot be induced in cardiac muscle. D. All the above result from the long refractory periods in cardiac muscle. P.85/13 HFR—BS—EBB4 14:38 HEHLTH SCIENCE LIBRHRY 5738841421 19. How does cardiac muscle relax during diastole? A. Ca++ influx stops and remaining Ca4+ is removed by pumps in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and sarcolermna preventing cross bridge formation. B. The Ca++-calmodulin complex is prevented from activating myosin light chain kinase so cross bridges can't form. C. Cross bridge cycling stops when accumulating ATP prevents the interaction of actin and myosin. D. Myosin light chain kinase is inactivated. 20. During a single cardiac cycle the and diastolic volume is 175 ml and the end systolic volume is 30 ml. What is the ejection fraction? A. about 35% B. about 45% C. about 55% D. about 65% 21. During which phase of the cardiac cycle is the pressure developed by the lefi ventricle greater than pressure in the aorta? A. ventricular filling B. isovolumetric contraction C. ejection D. isovolumetric relaxation 22. What is/are the efliect/s on heart fimetion when norepinephrine is released floor 23. sympathetic nerve terminals? A. It has no effect. B. It increases heart rate and stroke volume. C. It slows heart rate. D. It slows heart rate and increases stroke volume. How is Sterling’s law of the heart best stated? A. Heart rate and stroke volume are varied so as to maintain constant cardiac output. B. As the end diastolic volurne of the ventricle increases so does the stroke volume. C. Cardiac output is increased by raising stroke volume at constant heart rate. D. With hypertension, stroke volume falls because less time is available for ejection. F.BE/13 HPR—BS—EBB4 14: 38 HEFILTH SCIENCE L I BRFIRY 5738841421 P . [37/ 13 24. What is the physiologic basis of Sterling's law of the heart? A. The ability to vary heart rate and stroke volume independently. B. The length-tension relationship in cardiac muscle provides more optimal overlap of contractile proteins with increasing ventricular volume. C. Varying Stroke volume more effectively changes cardiac output than does changing heart rate. D. Blood can be pumped into the aorta only when pressure generated by the ventricle exceeds pressure in the aorta. 25. What are the most important factors determining the flow of blood through a vessel? A. blood pressure and vessel diameter B. blood pressure and blood viscosity C. blood pressure and degree of vessel branching D. vessel diameter and blood viscosity 26. What are the principal sites of vascular resistance? A. arteries B. arterioles C. capillaries D. veins 27. Which of the following is a good example of the intrinsic regulation of blood flow? A. Acetylcholine fi'om parasympathetic nerves acts on M2 receptors of vascular smooth muscle cells to cause vasodilation and increase flow. B. Angiotensin II reduces flow by causing the constriction of vascular smooth muscle cells. C. Nitric oxide (NO) fi-om endothelial cells diflhses to vascular smooth muscle cells causing them to relax and increasing flow. D. Vascular smooth muscle cells respond to increased flow by constricting which increases resistance and decreases flow. ":'_4.- ~ HEHLTH SCIENCE LIBRHRY 5738841421 HPR—BS—EBB4 14:38 28. What process accounts for most of the movement of gases, nutrients and wastes into and out of capillaries? A. bulk flow B. vessicular transport C. diffusion D. active transport (pumps) 29. In a certain capillary the blood pressure is 35mm Hg and the colloid osmotic pressure is 20mm Hg. What will most likely happen in that capillary? A, Pressure difiierences favor filtration so fluid will move out of the capillary. B. Pressure differences favor reabsorption so fluid will move into the capillary. C. There will be no net movement of fluid into or out of the capillary. D. There is not enough information profided to predict what will happen. 30. Which of the following helps maintain constant blood volume in the systemic circulation? A. Filtration from capillaries is balanced by capillary reabsorptiou so no net change occurs. B. Fluid lest from capillaries is restored by increasing water intake. C. Fluid lost fi'om capillaries is returned to the circulation by the lymphatic system. D. Excess reabsorption of fluid in the capillaries causes a reflex lowering of blood pressure which reduces filtration. 31. What systems regulate blood pressure over the short and long terms? A. the heart and kidneys B. the heart and baroreceptor reflexes C. the baroreceptor reflexes and the kidneys D. the baroreceptor reflexes alone 32. When the baroreceptor reflex is activated, what structures (effector organs) are innervated to regulate blood pressure changes? A. vascular smooth muscle B. cardiac pacemaker cells C. cardiac myocytes D. All the above are affected. F.88/13 r .= rears. _ HPR—BS—EBB4 14:39 HEHLTH SCIENCE LIBRHRY 5738841421 33. What are the predominant cation and anion in plasma and interstitial fluid? A. Na+ and C1- B. Na+ and HCO3- C. 11+ and Cl- D. K+ and P04 --- 34. A textbook contains the following description: “An afi'erent arteriole enters Bowman’s capsule and branches to form a network of capillaries which eventually reunite in an efferent arteriole that leaves the capsule.” What is being described? A. the distal convoluted tubule B. the proximal convoluted tubule C. the peritubular capillaries D. the glornerulus 35. Why is blood pressUIe in glomerular capillaries higher than in other capillary beds? A. Because smooth muscle in afferent arterioles is constricted. B. Because the diameter of the afferent arteriole is greater than that of the eflbrent arteriole. C. Because the fenestrated structure of the capillary wall allows for higher pressure. D. Because the renal arteries are typically constricted increasing pressure in the kidney capillaries. 36. What is diuresis? A. It is the movement of urine out of the body. B. It is the process of urine formation. C. It is the clearance of materials floor the plasma. D. It is the autoregulation of blood flow by the kidneys. 37. What regulates filtration in the glomerulus of the nephron? A. the balance of blood and osmotic pressures B. the osmolarity of plasma C. antiditu-etic hormone (ADH) D. pressure in the peritubular capillaries. F.89/13 HFR—BS—EBB4 14:39 HEHLTH SCIENCE LIBRHRY 38. In what part of the nephron does most reabsorption occur? A. in the glomerulus B. in the proximal convoluted tubule C. in the loop of Henle D. in the distal convoluted tubule 39. Which of the following is NOT an important process in the mechanism of fluid reabsorption in the kidney? A. primary active transport by the Na+~K+ ATPase pump B. seoondary active transport linked to Na+ diffiision C. active transport ofCla into the peritubilar capillaries D. oSmotic movement of water into the peritubular capillaries 40. What is/are the primary site/s of action of agents which increase or decrease urine 41. volume. A. the proximal tubule and the loop of Henle B. the glomerulus C. the loop of Henle D. the distal tubule and collecting duct Why does glucose appear in the urine of persons with diabetes? A. Because diabetics are unable to reabsorb glucoSe from the nephron so glucose appears in the urine. B. Because a diabetic’s metabolism produces much more glucose than normal. C. Because diabetics filter a greater percentage of renal blood flow than normal. D. Because tubular reabsorption mechanisms are saturated in diabetes so glucose appears in the urine. 42. If a person produces 1.5 liters of urine in a day, about how much was the volume filtered by the kidneys” glomeruli that day? A. about 50 liters B. about 100 liters C. about 150 liters D. about 200 liters 5738841421 F.1E/13 HFR—BS—EBB4 43 44. 45. 46. 47. 14:48 HEHLTH SCIENCE LIBRHRY 5738841421 . Under what conditions does the glomemlar filtration rate of compound X equal the renal plasma clearance of that compound? A. When tubular secretion of X is greater than tubular reabsorption of X. B. When tubular reabsorption ofX is greater than tubular secretion of X. C. When there is neither tubular secretion nor reabsorption of X. D. Glornerular filtration rate of any compound is always greater than its renal plasma clearance. What is the primary effect of aldosterone? A. It increases K+ conservation by the kidney. B. It increases Na+ conservation by the kidney. C. It stimulates secretion ofantidiuretic hormone (ADH). D. It increases glomerular filtration rate. What does antidiuretic hormone do and how does it do it? A. It increases water reabsorption by increasing the number of water channels in the kidneys9 collecting ducts. B. It increases Na+ reabsorption by increasing Na+-K+ ATPase activity in the proximal tubule. C. It stimulates renin secretion which increases reabsorption of Na+ and water in the loop of Henle. D. It stimulates secretion of aldosterone which conserves Na+ and K+ the length of the nephron. What are the principal eflbcts of angiotensin II? A. It increases secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide and promotes Na+ conservation. B. It increases aldosterone secretion and is a potent vasoconstrictor. C. It increases Na+ channels and Na+-K+ ATPase pumps in proximal tubule cells. D. It increases the number of water channels and K+ channels in distal tubules and collecting ducts. What is the mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and the pulse pressure (Pp) if systolic and diastolic pressures are 135/90 mm Hg? A. MABle 12 mm Hg; Pp= 45mm Hg B. MABP=105mm Hg ; Pp= 135mm Hg C. MABP=105mm Hg; Pp=45rnrn Hg D. LIABP=112mm Hg; Pp= 135mm Hg F.1l/13 HPR—BS—EBB4 14: 4E HEFILTH SCIENCE LIBRFIRY 5738841421 F“. 12/ 13 48. Which cells mediate color or day vision? A. rod cells B. cone cells C. both rod and cone cells D. none of the above 49. When red light is used to form a shadow which is then illuminated by a source of white light, what color is the shadow? A. red B. blue C. green D. yellow 50. This exam was A. too easy B. too hard C. about right HPR—BS—EBB4 14: 4E HEFILTH SCIENCE LIBRFIRY 5738841421 F“. 13/ 13 it a h; C) I 526W “ __ ___W__ _Wm ___ w“.le BMW” M m w m. _ ___,WF _b §*_Jl;w _____ 33/ C ______________ M._.!,§.WWQ._W u M H_h_ __ _ __mmmmégmfimwwwfi_w___ _____ Inf—Jim __ mm mm 3;? c: ___ _q _ w _ H_h__ H_*__ 4‘11. HQ WWW W _* fl __ _____ _____ __ _ m “___ “Hub 4 D H, m m .. _ ___ fi _ ___. __ ___?g_gr_____ ___,_ m "i M if": 1::7" TEITFIL F'. 13 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2012 for the course MPP 3202 taught by Professor Hurley during the Spring '08 term at Missouri (Mizzou).

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Exam 3 & Key - Fall 2003 MPP3202 - HPR—BS—EBB4 14:...

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