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LectureNotes10 - CHEM lé? Mm NWW Kowerf @; MM O’WUWM...

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Unformatted text preview: CHEM lé? Mm NWW Kowerf @; MM O’WUWM PMfigqu‘lLZ/YZ 0’5) fl/ Wflf gcvéL‘céH—JZCW @ GZbLO—UZJWW WFO”[OOWg/Lqm “kw/495% 0mm; 52an W'g‘CLW ( ‘ Mr'fcohé mgva W WIZHA 0/7124 [mi KMW 'ng Mm Mfirfm 6t Mgm W W [Lax 5W}: Mflarurffimj 5“ W73.” {A} Wk. (a) Virgil/“ILL CM TWW 1 m2 Column of Y/air (mass = 104 kg) GraVitational force '4 m iiiustration of the manner in which Earth’s atmosphere exerts pressure at the surface of the pianet. The mass of a column of atmosphere exactly 1 m2 in cross- sectional area and extending to the top of the atmosphere exerts a force of 1.01 x 105 N. Atmospheric pressure ‘ b ' Patm Hi“ ir- W Mercury barometer. A atmosphere on the The pressure of the surface of the mercu the blue arrow) equa the column of mercury (“50: {66 5‘3 5:4 Pfljflqi ry (represented by is the pressure of (red arrow). as=Patm+Ph 3 W A manometer, A oyed in the laboratory to sometimes empi _ measure gas pressures near atmospheric pressure. 3421,? "A. ' h ,, mew—s EWMM ('53; W? W : Perfumeer MM‘W‘W’ um 4%»;ch Wm VJ yaw mmme M l M W Atmospheric ‘ H An illustration of Boyle’s experiment. In (a) the volume of the gas trapped in the ]-tube is 60 mL when the gas pressure is 760 torr. When additional mercury is added, as shown in (b), the trapped gas is compressed. The volume is 30 mL when its total pressure is 1520 torr, corresponding to atmospheric pressure plus the pressure exerted by the 760-mm column of mercury. Atmospheric pressure pressure Gas Voluinhj ‘ =60le p l l r {i Cal“ he wfl‘Hgn (a) (b) H—Pi’fii bfwdf 0F PM“ 91/ PH/ VW 3%. mec# M Pam Proparfimz/ 7’2 G? 50 4 m Volume of an enclosed gas as a function of temperature at constant pressure. The dashed line is an 40 extrapolation to temperatures at which the substance is no longer a gas. ME 30 U _.... v 1 .' g (rm/pk at V V‘ l T”: 20 > 8 la a ws V: 10 0 ‘ ! -300 —200 7100 U 100 200 300 _ 273°C Temperature (°C) QWW‘HW dill ll/erog fin aw/ oxug-é‘a 7%er WW Observation Two volumes One volume Two volumes ‘ m Gaerussac S ‘ ‘ fcombining OX en water va or experimental observation o~ hydmgen yg p volumes shown together With Avogadro’s explanation of this phenomenon. Explanation Equation 2H2(g) 02(g) 2H20(8) 5w W kiwi“ MWS’W W? T“ W “l 7” #W T M P mmofiéf [firoWh'sz 7L3 b m Comparison - " -. _, ' " -\ , ' " illustrating Avogadro’s hypothesis. Note ‘ - - .’ E that helium gas consists of helium atoms. He \ N2 CH4 /’ Each gas has the same volume, F “ ' l _ , temperature, and pressure and thus - ,l-Il: ._ contains the same number of molecules. “i “— Because a molecule of one substance ' differs in mass from a molecule of VOlume 22'4 L 22'4 L 22'4 L another, the masses of gas in the three Pressure 1 film 1 arm 1 arm containers differ. Temperature 0°C 0°C 0°C Mass of gas 4.00 g 28.0 g 16.0 g Number of 6.02 x 1023 6.02 x 1023 6.02 x 1023 gas molecules WW 3-71; TM fin W Mg m Ciel” 25m} 3 (Li/Wm MW Vs OY [1’5 665 W '5' 974.6% M M pVfiW‘L KT?) 5 ’ 5 V: rill :- P WM Wag”, beak/g4; out 3 T10 Prqu {Eera‘mf TQMN§ bafis are QWJ tu-z‘M Nag), W prefcuwe r‘nsc‘cfiawienmis baa [F H Waihs 0:3?3 N Na. Cd“ 240C Mffs (Johnna, :‘é 144W3? Gas Mgffleg M06 mohm WW PV “I Y] Q7— “:9 Mumij to?“ Sid“ 0p eium-W 5’7 molar Mas; 5120- ?W pm 537) W 203 5L4”? TLe gas dfimsiv‘wj {s $div’t’d’lfl 71D fig fnvewdj pmefi‘M {—0 Egg-[M595 [hf/K Q9 A64qu no [MEMWUVLS/ gficajag [(4 a “M‘er WWI/4%, 4441/ IDA/WW5 Lamofl Parh‘afl pfé’gwfigf FM 4 my fave 6F mrmcfi ngg, 44:1 W/orexure mac/adv Me; 4% a?“ r PMHM [MGM/e a fi a gag -— pregame exwfa/ S’LLPPOQQ, W wed—“M (If 2 gaseg r'n W‘W ML UNUva T No, 6'6 Wv'i’eau ajeack gas are. pg. ’02:; PW: 77% W M07173“? X1, 0 F flw 7420?; M?- X, 7- 7 X ‘5 2 M if. L— PWJ farm)? W P17 0(74fhrw. {We afi’ 9 (haw M wot) Cflllem' m“ M mlgdwqmr é Gas volume ' W (a) Collection of gas over water. (13) When the gas has been measurement qollected, the bottle is raised or lowered ll 50 that the heights of the water inside " and outside the collection Vessel are ll ii made equal. The total pressure of the 1 gases inside the vessel is than equal to Gas collection ./ , 'F~r-._.__ ,_.. rlgili\lrilm\\lmi\\ a. “ll \ the atmospheric pressure. (g) —e 2 KC rm 4" SO 2. (3) , (“1) Pro/Mam 5.4+ »W MWW’E’EJ £3?ququ m f I”; H‘leqa @618 QQZOC CW 7471mm H3} W W gazing 04033 X/{w magafg Me {jar N1) N92 or PV; m [27’ 11064-1731 ~ZQS,ZK @ W‘M HQ wbflflnmcF/wacflwa MAM PM 5755 5 WNW?)va _ 01(3) ~—P__JV0 (a) +_ Ham] Wat/M A? M/gzg) + mfg) —+ NOW» Haw) when 35m 2— mfi Wm M 401.51, pimygen 61f §TP éurm M Whirl/1 1% ST?) W M47 747%: M N0 Wefwqu‘ ? a ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/18/2012 for the course CHEM 163 taught by Professor Gregoryyablonski during the Fall '10 term at MO St. Louis.

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LectureNotes10 - CHEM lé? Mm NWW Kowerf @; MM O’WUWM...

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