CHE113 11.Serology REV

CHE113 11.Serology REV - 1 Forensic Serology CHE 113...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Forensic Serology CHE 113 Forensic Science Copyright 2004, James T. Spencer 2 Forensic Serology Two types of Blood Evidence ; Blood analysis (e.g., chemistry, typing, etc.) Pattern analysis 3 Forensic Serology Blood: circulatory system and is continually being pumped. The blood distributes oxygen and nutrients and removes CO 2 to lungs for exhalation, other waste to the kidneys and liver for processing and elimination. Blood is a mixture of cells and plasma. Plasma is the liquid portion of the blood containing electrolytes, nutrients, waste products, vitamins, hormones, clotting factors, and proteins such as albumin and immunoglobulins ( antibodies to fight infection). Cellular portion of blood: red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and platelets. Blood cells like red blood cells float in the plasma. 4 Blood Properties Blood: Accounts for about 8 % of total body weight. 5 to 6 liters of blood for males . 4 to 5 liters of blood for females. A 40 percent blood volume loss, internally or/and externally, is required to produce irreversible shock (death). A blood loss of 1.5 liters, internally or externally, is required to cause incapacitation. 5 Blood Many Components: Human Red Blood Cells (in red), Platelets (yellow) and T-lymphocyte (light green) [also contains waste products, enzymes, etc.]. 6 Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (RBCs, erythrocytes) : most abundant cells in the blood give it its characteristic red color. Average of 5,000,000 RBCs per cubic microliter (mm 3 ). RBCs account for 40 to 45 percent of the blood. The percentage of blood made up of RBCs is frequently measured and is called the hematocrit . The ratio of cells in normal blood is 600 RBCs for each white blood cell and 40 platelets. 7 Red Blood Cells Uniqueness of RBCs : An RBC has a strange shape-- a biconcave disc that is round and flat, like a shallow bowl. An RBC has no nucleus . The nucleus is extruded from the cell as it matures. An RBC can change shape to an amazing extent, without breaking, as it squeezes single file through the capillaries. An RBC contains hemoglobin , a molecule specially designed to hold oxygen and carry it to cells that need it. 8 White Blood Cells and Platelets White blood cells (WBCs, leukocytes) : a part of the immune system and fight infection. WBCs circulate in the blood to be transported to an infection site. In a normal adult body there are 4,000 to 10,000 (average 7,000) WBCs per microliter (mm 3 ) of blood. When the number of WBCs in your blood increases, it is a sign of an infection somewhere in your body. Platelets (thrombocytes) help blood to clot by forming a platelet plug , blood clots (through coagulation factors), or other blood clotting mechanisms. There are approximately 150,000 to 400,000 platelets in each microliter of blood (average is 250,000). 9 Blood Clotting Blood Clot Formation ( blood cells , platelets , fibrin clot ) 10...
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This note was uploaded on 02/20/2012 for the course CHE 113 taught by Professor Spencer during the Spring '08 term at Syracuse.

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CHE113 11.Serology REV - 1 Forensic Serology CHE 113...

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