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compiler_phases

compiler_phases - COP4020 Programming Languages Compiler...

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COP4020 Programming Languages Compiler phases Prof. Xin Yuan
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COP4020 Spring 2012 2 02/20/12 Overview Compiler phases Lexical analysis Syntax analysis Semantic analysis Intermediate (machine-independent) code generation Intermediate code optimization Target (machine-dependent) code generation Target code optimization
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Source program with macros Preprocessor Source program Compiler Target assembly program assembler Relocatable machine code linker Absolute machine code Try g++ with –v, -E, -S flags on linprog. A typical compilation process
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What is a compiler? A program that reads a program written in one language (source language) and translates it into an equivalent program in another language (target language). Traditionally, the source language is a high level language and the target language is a low level language (machine code). compiler Source program Target program Error message
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COP4020 Spring 2012 5 02/20/12 Compilation Phases and Passes Compilation of a program proceeds through a fixed series of phases Each phase use an (intermediate) form of the program produced by an earlier phase Subsequent phases operate on lower-level code representations Each phase may consist of a number of passes over the program representation Pascal, FORTRAN, C languages designed for one-pass compilation, which explains the need for function prototypes Single-pass compilers need less memory to operate Java and ADA are multi-pass
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COP4020 Spring 2012 6 02/20/12 Compiler Front- and Back-end Semantic Analysis and Intermediate Code Generation Scanner (lexical analysis) Parser (syntax analysis) Machine- Independent Code Improvement Target Code Generation Machine-Specific Code Improvement Source program (character stream) Tokens Parse tree Abstract syntax tree or other intermediate form Modified intermediate form Assembly or object code
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