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Psych 110 Book Notes

Psych 110 Book Notes - Psych Book Notes Ch 1 Seven Themes...

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Psych Book Notes Ch. 1 Seven Themes of Psychological Science (summary on p. 15) 1. Psychology is an empirical science 2. 2Nature and nurture are inextricably entwined 3. The brain and mind are inseparable 4. A new biological revolution is energizing research 5. The mind is adaptive 6. Psychological science crosses levels of analysis 7. We often are unaware of the multiple influences on how we think, feel, and act Levels of Analysis Biological: how the physical body contributes to mind and behavior, i.e. neurochemical and genetic processes occurring in the body and brain Individual: individual differences in personality and in the mental processes that affect how ppl perceive and know the world Social: how group contexts affect ppl’s ways of interacting and influencing each other Cultural: how different cultures shape the thoughts, feelings, and actions of the people in them Wilhelm Wundt Established first psych lab and institute in 1879 Realized psychological processes take time to occur, and measured reaction time Developed method of introspection – a systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the content of their thoughts Edward Titchener (student of Wundt’s) Structuralism – a school of thought based on the idea that conscious experience can be studied when it is broken down into its underlying components. Titchener believed that understanding basic elements of consciousness would help us understand the mind Problem with introspection is that experience is subjective William James Principles of Psychology (1890) – his book analyzing the human mind argued that the mind is much more complicated than its elements and therefore can’t be broken down first discovered the stream of consciousness – an ever0changing, continuous series of thoughts that can’t be frozen in time influenced by Darwin thought we should examine the functions of the mind functionalism – James’ approach, according to which the mind came into existence over the course of human evolution and works as it does b/c it is useful for preserving life and reproducing Gestalt school Founded by Max Wertheimer in 1912
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Gestalt theory – the whole of personal experience is not simply the sum of its constituent elements; in other words, the whole is different from the sum of its parts. Ex: if a researcher shows ppl a triangle, they see a triangle, not 3 lines on a paper Opposes structuralism; mind sees a whole picture, not the pieces and the perception of objects is subjective and dependent on context Phenomenological approach – unstructured reporting of experience from ordinary people’s observations referring to the totality of subjective conscious experience Sigmund Freud Unconscious – mental processes operating below the level of conscious mental forces determining much of human behavior
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Psych 110 Book Notes - Psych Book Notes Ch 1 Seven Themes...

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