Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions2012

Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions2012 -...

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2/5/2012 1 Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions Exchange of water from one reservoir to another. Can occur both ways, from surface water to groundwater and reverse. Effected by topography, geology and climate Can be determined using water levels, temperature and chemistry Groundwater Table Groundwater surface water interactions are applicable to all types of surface waters: i.e., rivers, lakes, canals, swamps, bogs, etc. 30 m 40 m 45 m Water table represents the top of the saturated water surface in the ground. Groundwater flows from areas of high pressure to low pressure, typically from areas of high elevation to low elevation. Potentiometric lines Flow lines 25 m 30 m 20 m 15 m Connected Vs Non-Connected streams When the groundwater table is below that of the stream, the stream is not connected to the groundwater table. In these circumstances the stream is always losing. Bank Storage refers to the temporary storage of floodwater in the aquifer along the banks of a stream. This is common along stream channels following a storm event, but also in coastal wetlands exposed to tidal fluctuations. Flowthrough conditions occur in which the surface water is both a recharge and discharge site through: typical for South Florida Canals Stream Types Perennial Streams: streams that flow all year round. Tend to be predominantly gaining streams. Intermittent streams: streams that flow only during the wet seasons. Ephemeral Streams: usually losing streams, that flow only in response to a water-input event. Shifts in GW-SW interactions with shifts in stream water levels or tidal fluctuations A. Groundwater is discharging to river or ocean B Ri i t l l i i B. Rise in stream level, increase in the hydraulic head in the stream which causes surface water to
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