Infiltration and Runoff_2012

Infiltration and Runoff_2012 - 1/27/2012 Infiltration and...

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1/27/2012 1 Infiltration and Runoff Infiltration capacity Infiltration capacity : the maximum rate (L/T) at which infiltration can occur under specific conditions of soil moisture. Infiltration capacity is a function of the soil’s water content. • For a dry soil, the infiltration capacity is high. • Surface tension between the soil particles and the water draws the water downward into the soil. Infiltration capacity is a function of the soil’s water content. • Initially, for a dry soil Infiltration capacity is high • As the water content increases in the soil, the capillary forces diminish, and the infiltration capacity decreases. In addition, colloidal particles, clays, swell as the moisture content increases, further reducing the infiltration capacity reducing the infiltration capacity. Eventually, the infiltration capacity reaches a constant equilibrium value. Rain rate > infiltration capacity, than the rain will sit on the ground surface and contribute to either depression storage, overland flow, or will evaporate. If the rain rate < the infiltration capacity , then all of the rainfall will infiltrate
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2 Horton Overland Flow • When rainfall intensity exceeds infiltration, excess rainfall goes into depression storage (water held in puddles), once these are filled then remainder goes into overland flow (Horton Overland Flow) overland flow (Horton Overland Flow). Horton Overland Flow: Flooding River Flooding River Flooding can be measured in height of water Or measured in Discharge Discharge has units of Volume/time Crest Recession Stream Hydrograph • a graph of stream discharge at one location over time.
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This note was uploaded on 02/18/2012 for the course GLY 4822 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at FIU.

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Infiltration and Runoff_2012 - 1/27/2012 Infiltration and...

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