CHEM102_FinalPrep_BookNotes

CHEM102_FinalPrep_BookNotes - 10 Bonding Tuesday 12:24 AM...

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10.1 Lewis Theory Lewis Theory was created by G.N. Lewis, Irving Langmuir, and Walther Kossel Valence Shell electrons play an important role in chemical bonding Electrons are transferred from atom to atom: Ionic Bonding Electrons are shared between atoms: Covalent Bonding Electrons are shared to form an Octet Fundamental ideas of the Lewis Theory : Lewis Symbols : Chemical symbol to represent the nucleus and core electrons of an atom together with dots placed around the symbol to represent valence electrons . 10.2 Covalent Bond Intro Monday, January 03, 2011 8:13 PM Covalent Bonding Sharing of Electrons Coordinate Covalent Bond - a single atom contributes both of the electrons to a shared pair 10.3 Polar Covalent Bonds & Electrostatic Potential Maps Monday, January 03, 2011 8:29 PM Electrons are displaced toward the more nonmetallic element. The polar charges are represented with for the more nonmetallic. To make electrostatic potential maps The electron distribution within molecules is approximated by using the Schrödinger Equation. Polar Covalent Bond - Unequal sharing of electrons Electrostatic potential is the work done in moving a unit of positive charge at a constant speed from one region of the molecule to another. Related to ionization energy (I) and electron affinity (EA) If Δ EN is very small, the bond is covalent. If it is very large, the bond is ionic. Otherwise it is polar covalent Electronegativity Difference Δ EN is the absolute value of the difference in EN values of bonded atoms Electronegativity is the an atoms ability to complete for electrons with other atoms to which it is bonded. 10.4 Writing Lewis Structures Monday, January 03, 2011 9:17 PM Show all valence electrons in Lewis Structure Usually all electrons are paired Usually each atom requires an outer shell octet of electrons (except for H) Sometimes multiple covalent bonds (double, triple) form. Fundamental Requirements Central atom: bonded to two or more atoms Terminal atom: bonded to one atom Hydrogen atoms are always terminal atoms Central atoms are generally those with the lowest electronegativity Carbon atoms are always central atoms Molecules and polyatomic ions generally have compact symmetrical structures Rules: Skeletal Structures 10 Bonding Tuesday, March 01, 2011 12:24 AM Book Notes Page 1
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Count lone pair electrons as belonging entirely to the atom on which they are found. Divide bond pair electrons equally between the bonded atoms. FC = number of valence e - in free atom - number lone pair e - - number bond pair e - Number of valence electrons in the free atom minus the number of valence electrons assigned to that atom. Sum of formal charges should be zero for a neutral molecule and must equal the magnitude of the charge for a polyatomic ion.
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