HANDOUT FOR LECTURE 16: PHARISEES, SADDUCEES, ESSENES Josephus refers to the parties or schools of thought that came into being during the Hasmonean period as "haereseis" (a Greek word which equals the Latin "secta"), which is usually translated as sects or philosophies. These Jewish sects are characterized by the following features: because they felt alienated, they separated themselves from the rest of the community. They believed that traditional values of society had become corrupted, and only they embodied the ideals of the larger group. The three sects mentioned specifically by Josephus - the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes - appear to have originated and crystallized in the mid-second century B.C.E. The sons of Zadok divided into three separate groups. One branch of this family - the Oniads - established a rival temple at Leontopolis in Egypt. A second branch was central in the formation of the Essene sect. A third segment remained in Jerusalem and beamce the Sadducees. The Sadducees were the priests and aristocracy in Jerusalem.
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This note was uploaded on 02/19/2012 for the course RELI 106 taught by Professor Magness during the Fall '08 term at UNC.