Africa Test 2 Study Guide

Africa Test 2 Study Guide - Exam 2 Unit 2: Development and...

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Exam 2 Unit 2: Development and Uncertainty This section introduces the history of development interventions in Africa and how they feed into day to day uncertainties among people living at the 'globalization's shoreline'. We will use the case study presented by Edward Carr in Ghana as well as a variety of economists‘ perspectives on development. At the end of this unit you should be able to: 1. Explain the key trends in the history of the development industry. a. Colonial Development (prior to 1952) a.i. Education only through Missionary work or in French colonies a.i.1. Missionaries taught Africans to read the Bible and write, to become Christians a.i.2. French thought of their colonies as French citizens, they taught some people in cities to read and write, they were trained to be French a.ii. Metropole- Resource extraction a.ii.1. colonies with fertile land were managed indirectly- local power structures left in place but answer to colonial rulers a.ii.2. colonies with extractable resources were sold to a company to manage a.ii.2.1. people were forced to migrate to provide labor a.iii. Infrastructure: ports were built, but very few roads- only to get resources out or in white settlements a.iii.1. trade routes had always existed in Africa, but they were/are not paved roads with easy access to transportation. b. Push for independence (1940s-50s) b.i. WWII got Africans thinking about how no one race is superior to another, wanted independence b.i.1. Africans and white settlers were doing really well economically (particularly in Kenya) and wanted to break free of Europe b.i.2. Dust Bowl also helped with this push… very scary because it could easily happen in Africa (especially Kenya). People wanted to reshape the land and policies- extension workers sent out c. After Independence = Modernization Theory (1950s-60s) c.i. Marshall Plan rebuilt Europe so quickly, we thought we could build up Africa just as quickly by investing in huge infrastructure projects (dams- especially, bridges, buildings, roads, etc.) c.i.1. many projects were not well thought out, ended up with a lot of African debt because they were built on loans everyone knew they wouldn’t be able to repay c.i.2. Africa did not have the technical class- engineers to design and maintain, so money ended up going to America, Europe, Russia to do this; also tied to things like fish rights for building dams… didn’t really benefit Africans much c.ii. Cold War- Russia and US funneling money into Africa to get countries on their side c.ii.1. ignored huge human rights abuses c.ii.2. kleptocratic rulers c.iii. Stagflation of 1970s: rising fuel prices, increased cost of food, world can’t afford Africa’s luxury crops (coffee, tea) and they accumulate a LOT of debt. d.
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Africa Test 2 Study Guide - Exam 2 Unit 2: Development and...

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