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Unformatted text preview: Module 4 (Decolonization of the non-western world) October 26th Decolonization in India (1947) One of the first countries to decolonize India is the most populous country of democracy Three influences on Indias path to independence British Colonial Rule (legacies) o Began with East India Trading Company in the 1700s o 1858 British gov took control of 2/3s of India o Established large administration to control, beurocracy o Established an army o Established schools o Invited locals to participate in the world market o India was required to provide raw materials o 1920 over 220 million people o 4 distinct languages o Hinduism was largest religion, 1/4 were Muslim, there were also Sikhs o Class differences o British administrators institutionalized different treatment of different religions because each religion was governed separately o 1872-1921 life expectancy of Indians was dropping o Local elites began to assert Indias independence which led to the Indian National Congress o British structure remained in place after independence The World Wars, and especially Wilsons principle of self-determination and equality of nations o INC has a choice to support British in the hopes to be awarded with independence or to revolt against Britian o INC decides to support British o 1.2 million fought in line with the British o Wilson became a hero in India because India believed at the end of the war they would receive self-determination and equality of nations o When war ended Indian delegates were chosen by Britian and they independence was shot down by all the great powers o 1919 the creation of the League of Nations o Racial Equality Clause of 1919, proposed by Japanese, race did not determine the equality of nations, was shot down by great powers o INC was upset by events and anti-colonial movement turns to boycotts and resistance Local cultures and traditions The Main Actors Mohandas Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, and the Indian National Congress (1885) o Monhanda Gandhi Born 1869, from a prince, born well-off Mother brought him up as a Hindu He became an educated elite 1888 arrived to London to study law Went to South Africa later and was appauled by the way Indian workers were treated 1919 Gandhi returns to India and becomes a leading voice in the resistance Gandhi calls upon much of the Hindu culture, passive resistance Gandhi believed India would be based on harmony and justice rather than materialism 1930 Gandhi begins calling for full independence WWII INC is faced with the same question again: support Britain or Revolt INC chooses something in-between British empire drained India to support the War effort After WWII it seemed independence was inevitable, British was week, Gandhi and others were strong, US did not want communism to take over o Indian National Congress (1885) o Jawaharlal Nehru Muslim League and Mohammed Ali Jinnah o Ethnic cleansing between Hindus and Muslims tainted independence...
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