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Module 5

Module 5 - Module 5 Ideology of the 20th Century(1919-1989...

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Module 5 November 14, 2011 Ideology of the 20 th Century (1919-1989): Fascism Marxism/Leninism Liberal Democracy 1989/1991 – return of economic globalization, pre WWI era (fall of communism and the Soviet Union) Economic Globalization (Homogenizing factor) A world that is connected economically Global financial system - The massive movement of investment money across the world The creation of multi-national corporations Commodities – consumption of foreign goods (Coke is sold around the world) Theme 1 Russia moves away from a concentration on heavy Industry, returns to producing raw materials Soviet Union collapsed because of its failure to adapt to economic globalization Europe attempts to create a common market (Danger: Greece and Italy) India and China have adapted to globalization in their own ways India – free market molded from American capitalism China – modified communism, state run economy Theme 2 Economic liberalism does not equal democratic liberalism The end of the age of ideology set the stage for the rise of the rest o Post 1989 period – nonwestern world has begun to catch up with the western world o British 16 th century WWII o America WWII – now o Now is the rise of the rest Chinas growth has lifted 400 million people from poverty Average income per person globally has risen up until 2 years ago How to explain the rise of China and India? November 16, 2011 1989 – Liberalism was the winner of the age of ideologies, seemed that it was predestined by history Triumph feeling in the west Political Liberalism vs. Economic Liberalism Just because the Soviet Union Collapsed, political liberalism was not guaranteed to become accepted globally New Russia was a semi-authoritarian regime with a free market economy that had state control After the collapse of Soviet Union:
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People believed the world would become centered around the US and the world would transfer from bipolar to unipolar The Collapse of Communism: Many regimes of Eastern Europe lacked legitimacy , relied on Marxism/Leninism Clear by 1968, Prague Spring, countries had had Marxism/Leninism imposed on them and those in power employed this ideology to stay in power Economic Legitimacy also failed o Instead of relying on political legitimacy, leaders focused on economic legitimacy o Companies in EE took out massive loans from banks to buy consumer items and create consumer items on their own o Russia began to sell Oil on the open market (Helped them through lack of political legitimacy) o For a few decades the economic legitimacy worked o In the 1980’s loans from the west failed because leaders did not reform countries, but pocketed the money o The war in Afghanistan, Soviet Union invaded and became a costly war (Their version of Vietnam) o By 1985 the SU is in trouble, lost political legitimacy and begins loosing economic legitimacy Actions of Gorbackev Mikhail Gorbackev, glasnost, perestroika, and the Chernobyl nuclear disaster
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Module 5 - Module 5 Ideology of the 20th Century(1919-1989...

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