Bioethics Study Guide 1

Bioethics Study Guide 1 - 2 cases of either prima facie and...

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2 cases of either prima facie and all things considered. Then a counterexample for each (4 total) 1. Prima facie: at the face value. - Principle: murder is wrong: This can be overridden by all things considered. It is bad to kill someone. All things considered: it was an “evil” person who was trying to murder and innocent child and this was the only way to save the child. - Principle: Always telling the truth. Telling the truth is bad though when it might unnecessary pain in someones life. (ie Carlos) - Principle: right to privacy. 2. All things considered: considering the entire situation. - Beneficence: always promote good. Counterexample: should we actually promote harm sometimes? It is necessary to harm someone sometimes. i.e. a policeman having to taze somebody in order to arrest them. Causes harm. - Expelling someone: causes harm. However if they cause issues in school, bring in a gun, disrupt class, etc… You cannot only take a principle and apply it to all situations. There are counterexamples which can make moral principles inactive. The principle is either true and DOES have that moral status, or it doesn’t apply and therefore doesn’t carry that moral status. How do we do it if we can’t just apply it? 1. Learn about the relevant nonmoral features 2. Be receptive to all the moral features of the situation 3. Be in a good, calm, and sober state to make decisions. Ex. If someone is to have an abortion and we want to decide that moral status of that decision, we need to learn about why she is in the situation, all the details, the alternatives, etc… My example: Is it ethically okay to steal? Examine the situation, prima facie says no. BUT what if stealing a piece of bread from a bakery to feed starving child? Straw Man Fallacy – the misrepresentation of a person’s views so they can be more easily attacked or dismissed (Argument is distorted and made to look extreme) ex. Vaccine saves 10,000 people of some disease but on average kills one person per 10,000. Fallacy would focus on the death of the single individual) proves nothing Begging the Question Fallacy – trying to prove a conclusion by using the conclusion as support (“x is true because x is true”) arguning in a circle Appeal to the Person Fallacy (Ad hominem Fallacy) – the rejecting of a statement on the grounds that it comes from a particular person (you can disregard what susan has to say about abortion. She is a catholic.) ask to reject a claim because of a persons character Slippery slope involves saying that we should not do action A (even if it is not bad, or may be good) because it might lead to action B (which is bad.) Can or cannot be fallacious. Fallacious: says that if A happens B will inevitably happen, however, this is fallacious because there is no reason to believe that B is inevitable. Fallacious because no reason to believe that one event must inevitably follow from another without an argument for such a claim Examples: 1.
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