Phil 134:Reli 126 final exam outline

Phil 134:Reli 126 final exam outline - Phil 134/Reli 126...

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Phil 134/Reli 126 Final Exam Outline 1. What is the disagreement between Clifford and James? Explain each of their views, and the nature of their disagreement. Whose view comes closer to the truth? Explain and defend your view. Issue: beliefs and evidence req. to justify them Clifford: WRONG to hold unjutified beliefs; never permissible to believe w/o evidence Arguments: 1. if you believe in the absence of evidence, you harm the “institution” of belief by making society more credulous/gullible 2. we have a duty/obligation to pass down our bodies of belief 3. public nature of belief Obj. to Clifford: 1. maybe some beliefs will always elude our knowledge. In those cases, belief w/o evidence can be justified 2. clifford’s principle needs to be limited - rules out religion too quickly? - Religious domain and sci. matters/empirical observations have diff. natures - Is there objective truth to religion to begin with? 3. what is “sufficient evidence”? 4. everybody must take something on faith i.e. clifford’s principle of uniformity of nature (past, present, future uniform) taken on faith James: if faced w/ a genuine option, then it’s permissible to believe w/o sufficient evidence Genuine option: Alive v. dead: “doors of belief” aren’t shut; something one could come to believe Forced v. avoidable: only 2 possibilities Momentou s v. trivial: stake is significant James’ counters to Clifford: 1. moral beliefs: ? fill in here 2. self-fulfilling beliefs: believing something brings it about i.e. believe you’re a good match for someone brings it about that you’re a good match Own view: fill in 2. What does Locke think the relationship is between faith and reason? Explain and evaluate his view. Reason: knowledge & probability through senses & reflections Senses ex: empirical sciences
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Reflections ex: logic; mathematics Faith: belief based on revelation Revelation: comes from outside source Relationship btwn reason & faith When reason and faith speak to the same matter, reason will be more trustworthy Reason is always implicated in matter of faith; reason still playing a part; make judgment before declaring something ‘revelation’; no “revelation stamp” Faith w/o reason = enthusiasm (fundamentalism) *believes so long as reason doesn’t interfere* - would be willing to believe where reason is silent Fill in evalutaion 3. NOT DOING THIS ONE! 4. What is the ontological argument for the existence of God? Explain the argument, and evaluate it. Ontological argument by Anselm: 1. God is the being than which no greater can be conceived. 2. God exists in the understanding. 3. That which exists in both the understanding and reality is greater than that which exists merely in the understanding.
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