Week 2: Tourism
Deals with cultural representation, how do people represent themselves to create
revenue. Issues of race, gender, and consumption.
Tourism is directly tied to history and colonialism. Power relations will always be present.
The Origins of Sightseeing Judith Adler (1989)
Secular forms of tourism, not connected to religion. First flourished in the 16
Long term travel of people with money, localized in Europe. Young aristocrats went
abroad seeking knowledge. Learned the language first. They would stay at the houses
of gentry who opened their houses. A very personal and intimate travel. Relied heavily
on the ear and tongue. 17
century focus grew on the eye. Exposure of dancing,
fencing, you would go to learn and experience these things. It was not about
picturesque views or looking at something drastically different.
Not about vision, about language. The language was used to interact with people, to
communicate with them.
century: Idea of Cartesian vision
Developing sense of the visual, the eye is the window onto the world. Much more than
talking or listening, it is the eye that is the most important component of the modern
sense that is developing. Truthfulness is associated with sight, cannot be compared.
If you see it for yourself, you know it is true. If someone tells it, it is not the same. These
ideas developed now.
First development of photography. A small hole that projects an inverted image of the
scene outside. Colonialism is going on, there is an idea of vision becoming more
important, and this technology that helps record it. What you see is reality.
Universal reality that can be captured. We all see the same thing captured in a camera.
Naturalize representation: saying that the camera can capture reality that is fundamental
and truthful in the world. Head becomes a blank space in which the world is projected
onto. Hearing, language, thought process is all set aside.
Colonialism: at the same time, European expansion is taking place
Papal Order of 1452: declared war on all non-Christian. Sanctioned conquest.
Obligation to Christianize the world, taking the land, and populating it.
From extraction of wealth to settlement. Ultimately, settlement became more important
than extracting wealth. Settler colonialism still happens in the United States, Canada,
Eye grew importance, travel was all about increasing control. You want to extract things
from a different place.