Chapter 11

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 11 Chapter Customizing I/O Bjarne Stroustrup www.stroustup.com/Programming Overview Overview Input and output Numeric output File modes Integer Floating point Binary I/O Positioning String streams Line-oriented input Character input Character classification Stroustrup/Programming 2 Kinds of I/O Kinds Individual values Streams See Chapters 12-16 Text See Chapters 10-11 Graphics and GUI See Chapter 4, 10 Type driven, formatted Line oriented Individual characters Numeric Integer Floating point User-defined types Stroustrup/Programming 3 Observation Observation As programmers we prefer regularity and simplicity But, our job is to meet people’s expectations People are very fussy/particular/picky about the way People their output looks their They often have good reasons to be Convention/tradition rules What does 123,456 mean? What does (123) mean? The world (of output formats) is weirder than you could The possibly imagine possibly Stroustrup/Programming 4 Output formats Output Integer values 1234.57 1.2345678e+03 1234.567890 (general) (scientific) (fixed) Precision (for floating-point values) (decimal) (octal) (hexadecimal) Floating point values 1234 2322 4d2 1234.57 1234.6 (precision 6) (precision 5) Fields |12| | 12| (default for | followed by 12 followed by |) (default 12 (12 in a field of 4 characters) Stroustrup/Programming 5 Numerical Base Output Numerical You can change “base” Base 10 == decimal; digits: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Base 8 == octal; digits: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Base 16 == hexadecimal; digits: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a b c d e f // simple test: // simple cout << dec << 1234 << "\t(decimal)\n" << hex << 1234 << "\t(hexadecimal)\n" << oct << 1234 << "\t(octal)\n"; // The '\t' character is “tab” (short for “tabulation character”) // The // results: results: 1234 4d2 2322 2322 (decimal) (hexadecimal) (hexadecimal) (octal) Stroustrup/Programming 6 “Sticky” Manipulators Sticky” You can change “base” Base 10 == decimal; digits: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Base 8 == octal; digits: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Base 16 == hexadecimal; digits: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a b c d e f // simple test: // simple cout << 1234 << '\t' << hex << 1234 << '\t' << oct << 1234 << '\n'; cout << 1234 << '\n'; // the octal base is still in effect // the // results: // results: 1234 2322 4d2 2322 Stroustrup/Programming 7 Other Manipulators O...
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This note was uploaded on 02/18/2012 for the course CSCE 121 taught by Professor Walter daugherity during the Fall '09 term at Texas A&M.

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