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Lecture 8 - 03:10 Howdowelearn Problem:

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03:10 Learning- a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience How do we learn? Is all learning the same? Classical Conditioning- stimulus produces a response Pavlov- tried to do research looking at the effects of salivation on digestion Problem: the dogs were salivating when he brought the food into the room but he  wanted to study salivation from the food, not before He would ring a bell before the food and used classical conditioning to get them to  salivate to the bell Components of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned stimulus (US) Unlearned, and produces a response Unconditioned response (UR) Response to the unlearned stimulus Conditioned stimulus (CS) Learned stimulus Conditioned response (CR) Response to the learned stimulus The Steps Involved in Conditioning
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Sundae (US)   Drooling (UR) Bell (CS) + Sundae (US)   Drooling (UR) Bell (CS)   Drooling (CR) Explanations of how Classical Condition works Stimulus substitution- subjects were substituting the bell for the meat powder in their  brains, substitution of the CS for the US, this is wrong because the conditioned  response should always be the same as the UR but its not Information theory- condition stimulus is providing information about the US, you hear  the bell and are warned that something will happen, cognitive Biological mechanisms- cerebellum- neurons in the cerebellum that seem to be  associated with this learning between the association with the CS and US, if the  neurons are destroyed it impairs the connection between CS and US such that we no  longer produce the CR Does Timing matter? which of the following CS/US pairings will work and which wont Backward- US precedes the CS- doesn’t work Simultaneous- CS and US presented simultaneously- doesn’t work Delayed- CS presented at least until US is presented- works best Trace- CS is discontinued before the US is presented- works Principles of Classical Conditioning Higher order conditioning- more associations are made and new CS, cat is conditioned 
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