Chapter 4_CHO_2011

Chapter 4_CHO_2011 - Chapter Four Carbohydrates: Sugars,...

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Chapter Four Carbohydrates: Sugars, Starches, and Fiber HPEB 502 Fall 2011
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What Are Carbohydrates and Why Do You Need Them? Found primarily in plant-based foods Most desirable form of energy for body In form of glucose (-ose = carbohydrate) _______ _  and        especially rely on  glucose for fuel source. Which means?
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Plants convert the sun’s energy into glucose by  photosynthesis. Glucose is most abundant carbohydrate in nature. Used as energy by plants or combined with minerals from  soil to make other compounds, such as protein and  vitamins Glucose units linked together and stored in form of starch
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What Are Simple Carbohydrates? Simple carbohydrates are  monosaccharides  and  disaccharides Three monosaccharides Disaccharides : two monosaccharides joined together Maltose  = Sucrose  (table sugar) = Lactose  (milk sugar) =
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What are Complex Carbohydrates? Complex carbohydrates:  polysaccharides Long chains and branches of sugars linked together Figure 4.2 in text Examples:  
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Starches  is the storage form in plants. Amylose: straight chains of glucose units Amylopectin: branched chains of glucose units Sources of starch in the foods we eat:
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Fiber is Non-digestible but Important Fiber is part of plant that we eat but cannot digest Examples:  Humans lack __________________needed to break  down fiber. Dietary fiber:  naturally found in foods Functional fiber:  added to food for beneficial effect Example: ___________ added to cereals Total fiber     + 
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Soluble and Insoluble Fiber Fiber is classified by its affinity for water. Soluble fiber:  dissolves in water and is fermented by  intestinal bacteria Some are  viscous , have thickening properties Move more slowly through GI tract Lower  and  Insoluble fiber:  cellulose, hemicellulose, lignins Move more rapidly through GI tract, laxative effect Examples:
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More on Fiber Fiber is resistant to digestion but has many  powerful health effects. Fiber helps lower risk of developing: See Table 4.5 in text (p. 121)
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Filling Up on Fiber DRI: ________________ grams of fiber per 1,000  calories to promote heart health Typical American intake is: Gradually increasing fiber in your diet will minimize  side effects As you add fiber to your diet, you should also  _____________________________________
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Grains Two categories of grains: 1. Whole grains Three edible parts: bran, endosperm, germ Examples? 2.
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Chapter 4_CHO_2011 - Chapter Four Carbohydrates: Sugars,...

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