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Chapter%204_CHO_2011 - CHAPTER FOUR Carbohydrates Sugars...

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9/7/2011 1 C HAPTER F OUR Carbohydrates: Sugars, Starches, and Fiber HPEB 502 Fall 2011 What Are Carbohydrates and Why Do You Need Them? Found primarily in plant-based foods Most desirable form of energy for body In form of glucose (-ose = carbohydrate) _______ _ and especially rely on glucose for fuel source. Which means? Plants convert the sun’s energy into glucose by photosynthesis. Glucose is most abundant carbohydrate in nature. Used as energy by plants or combined with minerals from soil to make other compounds, such as protein and vitamins Glucose units linked together and stored in form of starch
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9/7/2011 2 What Are Simple Carbohydrates? Simple carbohydrates are monosaccharides and disaccharides Three monosaccharides : Disaccharides : two monosaccharides joined together Maltose = Sucrose (table sugar) = Lactose (milk sugar) = What are Complex Carbohydrates? Complex carbohydrates: polysaccharides Long chains and branches of sugars linked together Figure 4.2 in text Examples: Starches is the storage form in plants. Amylose: straight chains of glucose units Amylopectin: branched chains of glucose units Sources of starch in the foods we eat:
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9/7/2011 3 Fiber is Non-digestible but Important Fiber is part of plant that we eat but cannot digest Examples: Humans lack __________________needed to break down fiber. Dietary fiber: naturally found in foods Functional fiber: added to food for beneficial effect Example: ___________ added to cereals Total fiber = + Soluble and Insoluble Fiber Fiber is classified by its affinity for water. Soluble fiber: dissolves in water and is fermented by intestinal bacteria Some are viscous , have thickening properties Move more slowly through GI tract Lower and Insoluble fiber: cellulose, hemicellulose, lignins Move more rapidly through GI tract, laxative effect Examples: More on Fiber Fiber is resistant to digestion but has many powerful health effects. Fiber helps lower risk of developing: See Table 4.5 in text (p. 121)
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9/7/2011 4 Filling Up on Fiber DRI: ________________ grams of fiber per 1,000 calories to promote heart health Typical American intake is: Gradually increasing fiber in your diet will minimize side effects As you add fiber to your diet, you should also _____________________________________ Grains Two categories of grains: 1. Whole grains Three edible parts: bran, endosperm, germ Examples? 2. Refined grains Milling removes bran and germ What is lost in the process? Examples? Enriched grains: what is added to restore some of the lost nutrition? Glycogen Another Complex CHO Glycogen is the storage form of glucose in animals. Branched glucose similar to amylopectin Stored in _____________ and _______________ But only in limited amounts Important source of glucose for blood
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9/7/2011 5 Carbohydrate Absorption Disaccharides are absorbed in small intestine Broken down into _______________________ Monosaccharides are absorbed into blood and travel to the _______________________ Fructose and galactose converted into ______________ in the liver
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