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PSYC 226 Ch 4, 2.3.12

PSYC 226 Ch 4, 2.3.12 - Research Ethics Research Chapter 4...

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Unformatted text preview: Research Ethics Research Chapter 4 PSYC 226 Overview Overview Ethics and human research participants Ethics and non­human research subjects Ethics and scientific integrity Ethics Ethics Shift in emphasis So far the research process has been focused on Ideas Questions Hypotheses Theory Design Ethics Now you must consider the responsibility of conducting research and working with participants/subjects and data So, how might you define “ethics?” Ethics Ethics is the “study of proper action.” Research ethics is the RESPONSIBILITY of researchers to be honest and respectful of the individuals who are affected by the research study or their reports of the study’s results. What groups of people does this include? Ethics Research ethics concerns How you work with participants or subjects How you safeguard people’s information What you do with the data The American Psychological Association (APA) has ethical guidelines for psychologists in research and in practice Ethics Ethics Some important notes: Ethics are not an afterthought! You must integrate ethics at EVERY STAGE of the research process Ethics guide how we conduct our research and how we use the data Ethical categories Ethical 2 main categories of ethical responsibility: Ensuring the welfare of all participants/subjects Ensuring that public reports of your study are ACCURATE and HONEST What might be some challenges here? Ethical issues for human research participants human Notice the word “guidelines” These are guides for our research activities Why don’t we have a definitive list of rules for ethical research behavior? Research guidelines Research Where did our guidelines come from? No ethical guidelines pre­WW II Nuremberg Code (1947) Nuremburg Code Nuremburg Developed following Nuremburg Trial 10 points 1. 2. 3. Participation is voluntary The study should have a purpose of benefiting society The study should be designed so the expected results justify the methods Nuremburg Code Nuremburg 3. All unnecessary pain and suffering (physical and mental) should be kept to a minimum 4. No study should be conducted if there is reason to believe death or disabling injury will result (except maybe if the researchers also serve as participants) Nuremburg Code Nuremburg 6. The risks should never outweigh the humanitarian importance of the problem the study seeks to solve 7. Proper precautions and preparations should be made to protect participants against possibilities of injury, disability, or death (no matter how small the chances) 8. The study should only be conducted by scientifically qualified individuals Nuremburg Code Nuremburg 9. During the study, participants should be able to end their participation without penalty 10. The principal investigator (PI) must be prepared to end the experiment at any time if there is reason to believe participants may experience injury, disability, or death Nuremburg Code Nuremburg Sadly, not all researchers followed the code Tuskegee study Milgram obedience study Further legislation Further National Research Act (1974) National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research Belmont Report Belmont Report Belmont Basic ethical principles for research Three basic principles 1. Respect for persons a. b. 2. Beneficence a. b. c. 3. All participants should give informed consent Protections for special populations (children, people with disabilities, incarcerated individuals) Do no harm to participants Minimize risks to participants Maximize potential benefits to participants Justice a. Fairness in procedures for selecting participants APA Code of Ethics APA First APA ethics committee formed due to backlash from Milgram’s study Most recent revision was completed in 2002 See www.apa.org/ethics/code2002.html Guidelines for protecting participants and educating various groups about research APA members Students The public APA Code of Ethics APA 1. No harm (aka Non­maleficence) a. b. Avoid harming participants Minimize harm when it is unavoidable APA Code of Ethics APA 2. Privacy and confidentiality a. b. c. Protecting confidential information Discussing limits of confidentiality with participants Discussing confidential information appropriately (in scientific or professional contexts) with relevant parties APA Code of Ethics APA 3. Institutional approval a. b. c. Obtaining institutional approval (when required) Providing accurate information to Institutional Review Board (IRB) Conducting research according to approved protocol APA Code of Ethics APA 4. Competence a. b. Conducting research only with populations and in areas of your competence Seeking further training if you want to study an area or topic you are not competent in 5. Record keeping a. b. Keeping records according to research protocol and institutional and federal requirements Maintaining confidentiality of records (paper, electronic, audio, video, etc.) APA Code of Ethics APA Informed consent to research 6. a. Include the following information a. Purpose of the study, expected duration, and procedures b. Right of participant to decline participation and to withdraw from the study (at any time and without penalty) c. Foreseeable consequences of declining or withdrawing APA Code of Ethics APA Informed consent to research a. b. c. d. e. Reasonable, foreseeable factors that might influence willingness to participate a. Potential risks b. Discomfort c. Adverse effects Potential benefits of research and participation Limits of confidentiality Incentives for participation Contact information for researcher(s) and Office of Research Compliance APA Code of Ethics APA Informed consent to research a. b. c. For those conducting an intervention or treatment study a. Experimental nature of treatment b. Services that will/will not be made available to the control group (if applicable) c. How participants will be assigned to treatment or control groups d. Available treatment alternatives for those not willing to participate in the study or those who withdraw from the study Obtain informed consent from participants using appropriate language If the person giving consent is not the person participating in the research a. The procedure is still explained to the participant b. Assent is obtained from the participant c. Written consent is obtained from the participant’s legal representative APA Code of Ethics APA 7. Dispensing with informed consent a. Studies are exempt from informed consent if a. b. c. 8. The study involves normal educational practices in educational settings The study includes only anonymous questionnaires, naturalistic observations, or archival research where confidentiality is protected The study examines factors related to job or organization effectiveness in organizational settings (no risk to participants’ employment and confidentiality is protected) APA Code of Ethics APA 8. Offering inducements for research participation a. Incentives are not coercive, excessive, or inappropriate 9. Deception in research a. b. c. d. Conducting a study that includes deception is justified scientifically, educationally, or practically Effective non­deceptive methods are not feasible Participants are not deceived in such a way that could reasonably cause physical pain or severe emotional distress Participants are debriefed as early as possible and are given the chance to withdraw their data APA Code of Ethics APA 10. Debriefing Participants are given a prompt opportunity to obtain appropriate information on a. a. b. b. c. The nature of the study The results and conclusions of the research Researchers take reasonable steps to correct participants’ misconceptions about the research If there is scientific or humane justification in delaying or withholding this information, researchers take reasonable measures to reduce risk of harm ...
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