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Lecture 11_2-14-12 - LECTURE 11 2­14­12 PSYCHOLOGY...

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Unformatted text preview: LECTURE 11 2­14­12 PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY OF WOMEN Step up time… Step up time… Students who skipped a quiz, do not access Blackboard materials, do not do the reading, … received an email ALERT encouraging you to no longer place your grade­earning capacity at risk. This is a fork in the road. EXAM 1 EXAM 1 Administered on Blackboard Available 2­16­12, 9AM Questions will be viewed all at one time rather than one at a time. Do not come to class Thursday. Today Summary: LECTURE SLIDES ► Gender in Infancy, Childhood, Adolescence ► The study of the Psychology of Women ► Cultural representations of gender ► Gender self­concept ► Gender comparisons ► QUIZ REVIEW ► KNOW YOUR SYLLABUS 4 Remember the first­day Remember the first­day class exercise? What are some similarities about the rooms? What are some differences? What messages do settings imply (e.g., action, sweetness, etc.)? What is the gender of the child this room was designed for? Give specific reasons why think this. Gender stereotypic Non­gender­specific Less gender­stereotypic 14 6 We then talked about … We then talked about … Common Themes? ► Similarities versus Differences approach ► Diversity of experience ► Expectations ► Traits and characteristics ► Prevalence of gender themes Since that day, you’ve learned a lot about gender, such as how it develops, how it is constructed socially, gender similarities and differences, and multiple types of diversity in the experience and expression of gender. Three major course themes: Three major course themes: ►Social construction of gender What does that mean? ►Gender differences in power Between who? What kind of power? Does it matter? ►Diversity Of what? Among whom? Chapter Topics ► We started by looking at gender in Infancy ­­> Childhood ­­> Adolescence ► The study of the Psychology of Women Theoretical perspectives/Current trends ► Cultural representations of gender ► Gender self­concept ► Gender comparisons 9 Gender in infancy, childhood, adolescence 10 Gender in infancy, childhood, adolescence The learning of gender ► Distinguishing between females and males ► Gender identity and self­perceptions ► Developing gender stereotypes ► Alfieri et al. (1996) study on gender stereotypes ► Explore Other Cultures 4.1 11 Gender in infancy, childhood, adolescence ► Gender­related activities & interests: ► Girls’ participation in sports ► Toys and play ► Gender stereotypes and parental role models ► e.g., 2­parent, single parent, employed mothers ► Gender intensification ► Self­esteem in adolescence ► Body image 12 Basow & Rubin 13 Basow & Rubin ► Binion (1990) ► Adolescent girls’ health risks ► Resistance strategies ► Rose Glickman (1993) study on daughters of feminists 14 The evolving field of The Psychology of Women 15 The evolving field of The Psychology of Women ► Theoretical perspectives ► Research and the study of psychology of women Past research: ► Who did the research? Who participated? Sources of bias ► Current trends in the study of psychology of women 16 The Psychology of Women ► Biology and environment interaction ► Theories of sex typing ► Biological and environmental explanations ► Types of feminism 17 Cultural representations of gender 18 Cultural representations of gender ► Gender Stereotypes Content, Traits Perceiver characteristics, Target characteristics Age, ethnicity, social class, ableness, sexual orientation ► When does our exposure to gender stereotyping begin? According to the available research, what group(s) engages the least or the most in gender stereotyping? ► Bases for gender stereotypes ► Social categorization, social roles, identity labels 19 Cultural representations of gender Sexism ► Backlash effect, ambivalent sexism, modern sexism, cross­cultural findings ► Patterns of gender representation in media Underrepresentation of females Underrepresentation of specific groups of females Portrayal of gender­based social roles Depiction of female communion and male agency Emphasis on female attractiveness and sexuality 20 Cultural representations of gender Representation of gender in English language ► Male as normative ► Masculine generic language ► Spotlighting ► Diminutive suffixes for female terms 21 Cultural representations of gender Representation of gender in English language ► Negative terms for females – negative bias of language in reference to women ► Parallel terms – pairs of words that have comparable objective meanings for male and female terms but the female term has a negative connotation (bachelor/old maid) ► Childlike terms – used by non­intimates in reference to adult women is inappropriate and patronizing (babe, girl) ► Animal and food terms – heavy use in reference to women (cookie, bitch) ► Sexualization of women 22 Cultural representations of gender Representation of gender in English language ► Sexualization of women – Grossman & Tucker (1997) study of slang terms ► 50% terms used to describe females were sexual (e.g., slut) versus 25% terms used to describe males ► terms for women were more negative than those for men (e.g., bitch/slut vs. guy/dude) ► Examples from PowerPoint, videos, text ► What is the significance of differential treatment of females and males in language? 23 Gender self­concept 24 Gender self­concept ► Gender self­concept ► Gender identity, transgendered individuals, intersexuality ► Multiple genders in other cultures and in Western culture ► Theories of gender typing and central concepts 25 Gender self­concept ► Gender­related traits and psychological adjustment ► Gender attitudes ► Cross­cultural gender attitudes ► Negative evaluation of cross­gender stereotyped behaviors 26 Gender comparisons 27 Gender comparisons ► Gender differences in aggression ► Gender differences in verbal and nonverbal communication ► Explanations for gender differences in communication skills/abilities 28 Gender comparisons COGNITIVE ABILITIES ► Role of parental expectations in girls’ VERBAL skills ► Gender differences in VISUAL­SPATIAL skills ► MATH skills: Hyde and colleagues’ (1990) meta­analysis Explore other cultures 5.1 Factors related to women’s perspective on math ► Stereotype threat 29 ...
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