Lect2_0822 - 7. Formal Charges and How to Calculate Them...

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Ch. 1 - 1 7. Formal Charges and How to Calculate Them Formal charge number of valence electrons 1/2 number of shared electrons – number of unshared electrons where F is the formal charge, Z is the group number of the element, S equals the number of shared electrons, and U is the number of unshared electrons or F= Z-S /2 -U
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Ch. 1 - 2 7A. 7A. A Summary of Formal Charges A Summary of Formal Charges
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Ch. 1 - 3 8. Resonance Theory In a Lewis structure, we draw a well- defined location for the electrons in a molecule. In many molecules and ions (especially those containing bonds), more than one equivalent Lewis structure can be drawn which represent the same molecule
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Ch. 1 - 4 Resonance structures, then, are not real structures for the actual molecule or ion; they exist only on paper
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Ch. 1 - 5 The more stable a structure is (when taken by itself), the greater is its contribution to the hybrid The more covalent bonds a structure has, the more stable it is Charge separation decreases stability
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Lect2_0822 - 7. Formal Charges and How to Calculate Them...

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