ZOO Book Notes

ZOO Book Notes - ZOO Book Notes CHAPTER ONE Biosphere the...

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ZOO Book Notes CHAPTER ONE Biosphere – the thin layer of air (atmosphere), water (hydrosphere), and soil and rock (lithoshpere) that surrounds the planet and contains the conditions to support life Global Environment – the sum of all living organisms, the relationships among organisms, and the relationships between organisms and their physical surroundings Environment – a system of interdependent living and nonliving components and their interactions in a given area, over a given period. Abiota – the nonliving physical surroundings of the biosphere Biota – the living organisms that collectively comprise the biosphere Atmosphere – air 78% nitrogen; 21 % oxygen; .03% Carbon Dioxide and trace gases Evolution – the process of change with continuity in successive generations of organisms Big Bang Theory – the universe -all matter, energy, and space- arose from an infinitely dense, infinitely hot point called a singularity, roughly the sixe of a speck of dust. Evolution is driven by mutation and natural selection Mutation – a random change within the genetic material of an individual that can be passed in to that individual’s Natural Selection – the process that enables individuals with traits that better adapt them to a specific environment to survive and outnumber other, less well-suited individuals Speciation – the separation of populations of organisms, originally able to interbreed, into independent evolutionary units (species) that can no longer interbreed because of accumulated genetic differences Linear Growth – occurs when a quantity increases by a fixed amount in a given time period Exponential Growth – occurs when a quantity increases by a fixed percentage of the whole in a given time period Resource – anything that serves a need; it is useful and available at a particular cost Perpetual Resource – solar energy, is one that originates from a source that which is essentially inexhaustible Renewable Resource – can be replaced (renewed) by the environment, and as long as it is not used up faster than it can be restored, the supply is not depleted Nonrenewable Resource – exists in finite supply or is replaced by the environment so slowly (in human term) that, for all practical purposes, the supply might as well be finite Net Primary Productivity – the total amount of solar energy fixed biologically through the process of photosynthesis minus the amount of energy that plants use for their own needs Pollutant – is a substance or form of energy, such as heat, that adversely alters the physical, chemical, or biological quality of natural systems or that accumulates in the cells or tissues of living organisms in amount that threaten their health or survival Science – the rigorous and systematic search for unbiased explanations of natural phenomena, from the world within the cell to the far reaches of the cosmos
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Ecology – the study of the structural, function, and behavior of the natural systems that comprise the biosphere
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This note was uploaded on 02/20/2012 for the course ZOO 121 taught by Professor Russell during the Spring '08 term at Miami University.

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ZOO Book Notes - ZOO Book Notes CHAPTER ONE Biosphere the...

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