1-evolutionary thought

1-evolutionary thought - H istory of Evolutionary Thought...

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Unformatted text preview: H istory of Evolutionary Thought Aristotle, 4 C BC th • ‘scala natura’ • Fixity of Species Medieval Great Chain of Being Social metaphor Kings/Queens/Pope Archbishop Dukes/Duchesses,Ladies in waiting Priests/monks, pages… Merchants, shopkeepers Tradesmen… Shepherds, Beggars, Actors Thieves, pirates, gypsies Animals, birds, worms, plants Rocks Archbishop James Ussher Grand Design – time • October 23, 4004 BC 1581-1656 What happened? Renaissance: 15­16th C Europe The earth: • Ancient • Surface change • Life form change (transmutation) HOW DID ORGANISMS CHANGE? Late 17 /18 C th th Taxonomy & Systematics Geology Demography Evolution: Change of a species over time Paleontology Evolutionary Biology 1. Geology: Charles Lyell 1797-1875 • Uniformitarianism 2. Paleontology: Georges Cuvier • Extinction • Catastrophism Stratigraphy of Paris Basin 1769-1832 3. Taxonomy/Systematics: John Ray • Classification – Species – Genus 1627-1705 Carolus Linnaeus Systema Natura 1. Binomial • Genus, species 1. Latin, italics 2. + Order, Class 3. + Humans – 1707-1778 Homo sapiens 4. Biology Jean­Baptiste Lamarck • Explanation of change • Needs of organism Environment Change Activity Change Inherited 1744-1829 Use/disuse of body part Organism Change How the giraffe got a long neck • Use/disuse theory, or • Inheritance of acquired characteristics Problem? How were traits passed on? 5. Demography: Thomas Malthus 1766-1834 • Constant competition • Population checks Charles Darwin 1809-1882 Variation Population + Food Shelter = Space Adaptive Radiation Competition Evolution/Transmutation: Change in a species over time Nature selects favorable traits in the wild Natural selection Natural Selection acts on… 1. Individual variation 2. Heritability 3. Reproductive success Darwin’s study Mechanisms of Natural Selection Trait variations A, B, C Selective Pressure Advantageous trait ‘A’ (better adapted to reach adulthood) Increase in Reproductive success of trait ‘A’ Increase in proportion of individuals with trait ‘A’ New Selective Pressure Alfred Russel Wallace • Amazon, SE Asia • 1858: The letter • Linnean Society Darwin-Wallace medal 1823-1913 How were the advantageous traits passed on? Blending •gemmules Abbey of St. Thomas, Moravia Darwin’s Scientific Method Hypothesis: Observations/Data: Theory: ...
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1-evolutionary thought - H istory of Evolutionary Thought...

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