AddictionPP09S

AddictionPP09S - LECTURE 7,8 & 9: MOTIVATION, REINFORCEMENT...

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LECTURE 7,8 & 9: MOTIVATION, REINFORCEMENT AND ADDICTION I. Introduction Twenty million alcoholics and drug addicts in US Fifty million smokers “switching seats on the Titanic”
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LECTURE 13, 14 & 15: MOTIVATION, REINFORCEMENT AND ADDICTION I. Introduction A. Specific questions for drug abuse : 1. Why are some drugs pleasurable? 2. Why are some drugs so compelling that people continue to take them at great personal risk?
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Behavioral Causes of Death in 2000 ( 48% of all 2.4 million deaths ) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Tobacco Diet/activity Alcohol Infectious Toxic Agents Vehicles Fire arms Sexual beh Illicit drugs Deaths/year in US (thousands)  JAMA  291: 1238-1245.
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LECTURE 13, 14 & 15: MOTIVATION, REINFORCEMENT AND ADDICTION I. Introduction A. Specific questions for drug abuse : 1. Why are some drugs pleasurable? 2. Why are some drugs so compelling that people continue to take them at great personal risk? 3. Why does this happen for only some people? 4. What can we do about it (treatment)?
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B. History 1. Mrs. Winslow’s Soothing Syrup
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B. History 1. Mrs. Winslow’s Soothing Syrup 2. Harrison Narcotics Act 1914 3. Bayer Company 1898: “super-aspirin”
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B. History C. Relationship between drug addiction and natural motivations 1. Behaviors associated with natural drives such as hunger, thirst, sex have three things in common: a. Initiated by heightened sense of motivation or arousal b. Must be reinforced by obtaining the food or sex object or they will not be repeated c. Stimuli that become conditioned to these natural reinforcers trigger the same motivation (craving the object) and are themselves reinforcing.
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2. Drugs to which humans become addicted have same three features: a. Ability to motivate - produce craving for the drug b. They are reinforcing c. Conditioned drug-cues induce craving and are themselves reinforcing
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Antecedents of modern research on the neurobiology of drug addiction
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Operant conditioning PRESENT  PRESENT  STIMULUS STIMULUS REMOVE STIMULUS REMOVE STIMULUS BEHAVIOR  BEHAVIOR  INCREASES INCREASES Positive Positive Reinforcement Reinforcement Negative Negative Reinforcement Reinforcement BEHAVIOR BEHAVIOR DECREASE DECREASE S S Punishment Punishment Extinction Extinction
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A Skinner box
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II. INTRACRANIAL SELF-STIMULATION (ICSS) A. Olds and Milner (1954)
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II. INTRACRANIAL SELF-STIMULATION (ICSS) A. Olds and Milner (1954) B. General features of ICSS
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II. INTRACRANIAL SELF-STIMULATION (ICSS) A. Olds and Milner (1954) B. General features of ICSS C. Anatomy : 1. Medial Forebrain Bundle (MFB)
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III. NEUROCHEMISTRY OF ICSS A. Mesotelencephalic Dopamine System 1. Nigrostriatal dopamine system (NSDA) 2. Mesocorticolimbic: FROM Ventral tegmental area TO Nucleus Accumbens Amygdala Frontal cortex
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III. NEUROCHEMISTRY OF ICSS A. Mesotelencephalic Dopamine System 1. Nigrostriatal dopamine system (NSDA) 2. Mesocorticolimbic: a. Ventral tegmental area
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2012 for the course PSY 505 taught by Professor Dr. during the Fall '09 term at Pittsburgh.

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AddictionPP09S - LECTURE 7,8 & 9: MOTIVATION, REINFORCEMENT...

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