abnormal lecture 1_jm_spr09_dist

abnormal lecture 1_jm_spr09_dist - PSY1205: Abnormal...

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Unformatted text preview: PSY1205: Abnormal PSY1205: Psychology Overview Overview What is abnormal psychology? How do we know when behavior is abnormal? Etiology of abnormal behavior History of abnormal psychology Present day stigma of mental illness Overview of Abnormal Psychology Overview of Abnormal Psychology Psychopathology: Pathology of the mind; the symptoms and signs of mental disorders Abnormal psychology: An area of psychology that studies mental disorders, abnormal behavior patterns, and ways to help those affected by these behaviors. Mental disorders= Psychological Disorders Psychologist versus Psychiatrist How do we know when How do we know when behavior is abnormal? WAYS OF DEFINING ABNORMAL WAYS OF DEFINING ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR PERSONAL DISTRESS STATISTICALLY UNUSUAL WAYS OF DEFINING ABNORMAL WAYS OF DEFINING ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR Harmful dysfunction Two criteria for a mental disorder: Inability of an internal mechanism to perform its natural function Harm to the person as judged by the person’s culture DSM­IV­TR Criteria DSM­IV­TR Criteria Things to Remember when Defining Abnormal Behavior… Importance of context Continuum between normal and abnormal behavior Cultural and historical relativism Multiple causality vs. reductionism Connection between mind and body Three Explanations for the Three Explanations for the Etiology of Abnormal Behavior Supernatural Forces Somatogenesis Psychogenesis Supernatural/Mystical Supernatural/Mystical Forces Abnormality is the result of evil spirits Therapy involves exorcism A medicine man makes contact with the evil spirits to remove curse/spirit Somatogenesis Somatogenesis Abnormality is the result of a problem with a specific body organ Cure lies in treating or removing diseased organ First conducted in 2,000­3,000 BCE Psychogenesis Psychogenesis Abnormality is the result of how one feels, thinks and/or perceives the world Psychotherapy involves examining behavior and thoughts in order to modify it Sigmund Freud and the Psychodynamic View Brief History of Brief History of Abnormal Psychology From Prehistoric to Modern Times Trephination Trephination Ancient Greece Ancient Greece Knowledge evolved over course of several centuries Disturbed behavior seen as punishment for crimes against gods With time, mental disorders came to be viewed as natural phenomena. Hippocrates (460­377 BCE) Hippocrates (460­377 BCE) Founder of somatogenic perspective Brain is the center of intelligence Bodily fluids responsible for one’s behavior 4 Humours Phlegm Black Bile Yellow Bile Blood Mental illness caused by imbalance of bodily fluids Bloodletting Bloodletting Medieval Era: Religion and Medieval Era: Religion and Magic Fall of the Roman Empire led to fewer scientific advancements Influence of Christianity and the Church strengthens Predominant beliefs are rooted in superstitions The Medieval Church The Medieval Church Church and government merged Rigidity & dogmatism high Control over medicine & return to reliance on supernatural explanations for abnormal behavior Mental Status of Witches Mental Status of Witches Social outcasts Behaviorally disturbed? Exorcism the treatment, usually involving death Witch Dunking Witch 16th ­ 18th Centuries 16th ­ 18th Centuries 16th century Renaissance brought increase in humanism/knowledge, but mentally disturbed generally punished until late 17th century 17th­18th centuries came the scientific method, and need to support assertions with observation of phenomena Mesmer Mesmer Franz Anton Mesmer (early 1800s) Believed in treating people with magnets. Animal Magnetism Eventually declared a fraud. Mesmerizing Word part of culture now Physiognomy & Physiognomy & Phrenology Franz Joseph Gall (1758­1828) Surface of skull reveals the “organs” of the brain. Brain is center of character and emotion. Popular theory throughout 19th century. Argued for humane treatment of mentally ill. The Rise of Asylums The Rise of Asylums Institutions with a focus on moral treatment (1800s) Dorothea Dix – humane and economical benefits of treatment Large increase in facilities Development of psychiatry profession Doctors as supervisors of asylums Beginning of American Psychiatric Association Deinstitutionalization movement Deinstitutionalization movement New psychiatric medications in 1950s In the 1960s, new social policy and a focus on community­based health care leads to huge decreases in the number of patients in hospitals. What are the positives and negatives of deinstitutionalization? Stigma of Mental Illness Stigma of Mental Illness What is it? Where does it come from? Who does it affect? How does it affect them? What can be done to reduce the stigma of mental illness? ...
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