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Unformatted text preview: The Early
Ms. Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY Part I:
Confrontation” The Ideological Struggle
GOAL spread worldwide Communism METHODOLOGIES: US & the
of Communism & the
eventual collapse of the
[George Kennan] Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] Arms Race [nuclear escalation] Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of
Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command
economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “proxy wars” Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact] The “Iron Curtain”
The From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the
Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the
Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals
of Central and Eastern Europe.
-- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
-- Truman Doctrine 
1. Civil War in Greece.
2. Turkey under pressure from the USSR
for concessions in the Dardanelles.
3. The U. S. should support free peoples
throughout the world who were
resisting takeovers by armed
minorities or outside pressures…We
must assist free peoples to work out
their own destinies in their own way.
4. The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400
million in aid.
million Marshall Plan 
1. “European Recovery
Program.” 2. Secretary of State,
George 3. The U. S. should provide
aid to all European nations
that need it. This move
is not against any country or doctrine, but
against hunger, poverty, desperation, and
chaos. 4. $12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe
extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but
this was rejected].
this Post-War Germany
Post-War Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49)
Berlin The Arms Race:
A “Missile Gap?”
} The Soviet Union
exploded its first
A-bomb in 1949.
} Now there were
superpowers! North Atlantic Treaty Organization
orth tlantic reaty rganization
(1949) United States Luxemburg Belgium Netherlands Britain Norway Canada Portugal Denmark 1952: Greece &
Turkey France Iceland Italy 1955: West Germany 1983: Spain Warsaw Pact (1955)
Warsaw } U. S. S. R. } East Germany } Albania } Hungary } Bulgaria } Poland } Czechoslovakia } Rumania Premier Nikita Khrushchev
About the capitalist
states, it doesn't
depend on you
(Soviet Union) exist.
If you don't like us,
don't accept our
invitations, and don't
invite us to come
to see you. Whether
you like it our not, history is on our side.
We will bury you. -- 1956
We An Historic Irony: Sergei
Khrushchev, American Citizen
Khrushchev, Who buried who? Mao’s Revolution: 1949
Mao’s Who lost China? – A 2nd } Power!
Power! The Korean War: A “Police
Action” Kim Il-Sung Syngman Rhee “Domino Theory” The Suez Crisis: 1956-1957
The Radio Free Europe/Radio
Liberty The Hungarian Uprising: 1956
The Imre Nagy, Hungarian
} Promised free
} This could lead to the
end of communist rule
in Sputnik I (1957)
Sputnik The Russians have beaten America in
space—they have the technological edge!
(1959) Cold War --->
Tensions <--- Technology
<--& Affluence U-2 Spy Incident (1960)
Col. Francis Gary
Powers’ plane was
shot down over Soviet
airspace. Paris, 1961
Paris, Khrushchev & JFK meet to discuss Berlin and
nuclear proliferation. Khrushchev thinks that
JFK is young, inexperienced, and can be rolled.
JFK The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961)
Charlie Ich bin ein Berliner!
Berliners that the
West is with them!
West Khruschev Embraces Castro,
1961 Bay of Pigs Debacle (1961)
Bay Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
Cuban Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
Cuban We went eyeball-to-eyeball with the Russians,
and the other man blinked!
and Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
Cuban Vietnam War: 1965-1973
Vietnam “Prague Spring” (1968)
Former Czech President,
Communism with a human face! “Prague Spring” Dashed! Dissidents/playwrights arrested [like
Vaclav Havel—future president of a free
Czech 4th French Republic: 1945-1958
1. Democratic, but politically unstable
2. Universal suffrage.
3. Weak President; powerful legislature
4. Many political parties [coalition
5. Failure to gracefully leave Indochina.
6. Botched the Suez War.
7. Failed to settle the Algerian Crisis. 5th French Republic
1. Powerful President.
* first: Charles
2. Weak Cabinet.
4. Separation of
powers. DeGaulle’s Achievements
1. Settled the Algerian
2. Made France a
3. Sustained general
4. Maintained a stable,
5. Made France more
BUT, late ’60s student unrest and social
changes challenged him. In 1968 he resigned &
died of a heart attack in 1970.
died Student Riots in Paris
(May, 1968) Clement Attlee & the Labor Party:
1. Limited socialist program
[modern welfare state]. Natl. Insurance Act Natl. Health Service
1. Nationalized coal mines,
public utilities, steel
industry, the Bank of
England, RRs, motor
transportation, and aviation.
2. Social insurance legislation: “Cradle-to-Grave”
3. Socialized medicine free national health care.
Socialized Clement Attlee & the Labor Party:
6. Britain is in a big debt!
7. The beginning of the end of the British
Empire. India – 1947 Palestine – 1948 Kenya Mau Mau
uprising - 1955
uprising Churchill Returns: 1951-1955
Churchill He never really tried
to destroy the
Attlee’s The Federated Republic
1. Created in 1949 with
the capital at Bonn.
2. Its army limited to
12 divisions [275,000].
3. Konrad Adenauer, a
was its 1st President. Coalition of moderates and conservatives. Pro-Western foreign policy. German “economic miracle.”
1. “Father of Modern Germany.” Italy After WW II
1. Alcide de
unstable!] Part II:
Union” European Economic Integration
1. 1947 General Agreement on Tariffs
and Trade [GATT] 23 nations. Became the foundation of postwar
global It set up procedures to handle
commercial It provided a framework for
continuing negotiations [“rounds”].
continuing By 1990, 99 nations were
participating. European Economic Integration
2. 1952 European Coal & Steel
Community [ECSC]. HQ in Luxembourg. “Inner Six” Benelux nations,
W. Germany. Placed their coal and steel
industries under a form of
supranational Eliminated tariff duties and
quotas on coal and steel.
quotas European Economic Integration
3. 1957 European Economic
Community [EEC] HQ Brussels.
HQ Treaty of Rome. European Economic Integration
3. 1957 European Economic
Community [EEC] France, W. Germany, Italy, Benelux. Created a larger free trade area, or
customs Eliminate all trade barriers. One common tariff with the
outside Free movement of capital &
labor. European Economic Integration
4. 1967 combined the ECSC &
EEC to form the
[EC]. HQ Brussels.
HQ European Parliament. “Eurocrats.” 518 members [elected by all voters
in Only limited legislative power. Court of Justice. European Economic Integration
5. 1991-92 Maastricht Agreements
Maastricht European Union [EU] created from the EC.
uropean One currency, one culture, one social
area, and one environment!
area, Create a “frontier-free” Europe a common
EU One large “common market.” Goods coming into the EU would have
high tariffs placed on them. 2002 a common currency [Euro]
2002 2003 60,000 men EU rapid defense
force was created. ...
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