ColdWar - The Early Cold War: 1947-1970 Ms. Susan M. Pojer...

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Unformatted text preview: The Early Cold War: 1947-1970 Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY Part I: “Reconstruction & Confrontation” The Ideological Struggle The Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”] GOAL spread worldwide Communism METHODOLOGIES: US & the Western Democracies GOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan] Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] Arms Race [nuclear escalation] Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “proxy wars” Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact] The “Iron Curtain” The From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the From Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the iron Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe. of -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946 -- Truman Doctrine [1947] Truman 1. Civil War in Greece. 2. Turkey under pressure from the USSR Turkey for concessions in the Dardanelles. for 3. The U. S. should support free peoples The throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. their 4. The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 The million in aid. million Marshall Plan [1948] Marshall 1. “European Recovery European Program.” Program.” 2. Secretary of State, Secretary George Marshall George 3. The U. S. should provide The aid to all European nations all that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. chaos. 4. $12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe $12.5 extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected]. this Post-War Germany Post-War Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49) Berlin The Arms Race: The A “Missile Gap?” } The Soviet Union The exploded its first A-bomb in 1949. A-bomb } Now there were Now two nuclear superpowers! superpowers! North Atlantic Treaty Organization orth tlantic reaty rganization (1949) (1949) United States Luxemburg Belgium Netherlands Britain Norway Canada Portugal Denmark 1952: Greece & 1952: Turkey France Iceland Italy 1955: West Germany 1983: Spain Warsaw Pact (1955) Warsaw } U. S. S. R. } East Germany } Albania } Hungary } Bulgaria } Poland } Czechoslovakia } Rumania Premier Nikita Khrushchev Premier About the capitalist About states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist. (Soviet If you don't like us, If don't accept our invitations, and don't invitations, De-Stalinization De-Stalinization invite us to come invite Program Program to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you. -- 1956 We An Historic Irony: Sergei Khrushchev, American Citizen Khrushchev, Who buried who? Mao’s Revolution: 1949 Mao’s Who lost China? – A 2nd } Power! Power! The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950-1953) Action” Kim Il-Sung Syngman Rhee “Domino Theory” The Suez Crisis: 1956-1957 The Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Liberty The Hungarian Uprising: 1956 The Imre Nagy, Hungarian Prime Minister } Promised free Promised elections. elections. } This could lead to the This end of communist rule in Hungary. in Sputnik I (1957) Sputnik The Russians have beaten America in The space—they have the technological edge! space—they Nixon-Khrushchev Nixon-Khrushchev “Kitchen Debate” (1959) Cold War ---> Cold Tensions Tensions <--- Technology <--& Affluence U-2 Spy Incident (1960) U-2 Col. Francis Gary Col. Powers’ plane was shot down over Soviet airspace. airspace. Paris, 1961 Paris, Khrushchev & JFK meet to discuss Berlin and Khrushchev nuclear proliferation. Khrushchev thinks that JFK is young, inexperienced, and can be rolled. JFK The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961) The Checkpoint Charlie Ich bin ein Berliner! Ich (1963) (1963) President President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them! West Khruschev Embraces Castro, Khruschev 1961 Bay of Pigs Debacle (1961) Bay Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) Cuban Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) Cuban We went eyeball-to-eyeball with the Russians, We and the other man blinked! and Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) Cuban Vietnam War: 1965-1973 Vietnam “Prague Spring” (1968) Former Czech President, Former Alexander Dubček Alexander Communism with a human face! “Prague Spring” Dashed! Dissidents/playwrights arrested [like Dissidents/playwrights Vaclav Havel—future president of a free Vaclav —future Czech Republic]. Czech 4th French Republic: 1945-1958 1. Democratic, but politically unstable Democratic, [27 governments!] [27 2. Universal suffrage. 3. Weak President; powerful legislature 4. Many political parties [coalition Many governments] governments] 5. Failure to gracefully leave Indochina. 6. Botched the Suez War. 7. Failed to settle the Algerian Crisis. 5th French Republic (1958-Present) 1. Powerful President. * first: Charles first: DeGaulle 2. Weak Cabinet. 3. Weakened Weakened legislature. legislature. 4. Separation of Separation powers. powers. DeGaulle’s Achievements DeGaulle’s 1. Settled the Algerian Settled Crisis. Crisis. 2. Made France a Made nuclear power. nuclear 3. Sustained general Sustained prosperity. prosperity. 4. Maintained a stable, Maintained democratic government. democratic 5. Made France more Made politically independent. politically BUT, late ’60s student unrest and social BUT, changes challenged him. In 1968 he resigned & died of a heart attack in 1970. died Student Riots in Paris Student (May, 1968) Clement Attlee & the Labor Party: 1945-1951 1945-1951 1. Limited socialist program [modern welfare state]. Natl. Insurance Act Natl. Health Service Natl. Act Act 1. Nationalized coal mines, Nationalized public utilities, steel industry, the Bank of England, RRs, motor transportation, and aviation. 2. Social insurance legislation: “Cradle-to-Grave” 2. Social security. security 3. Socialized medicine free national health care. Socialized Clement Attlee & the Labor Party: 1945-1951 1945-1951 6. Britain is in a big debt! 7. The beginning of the end of the British The Empire. Empire. India – 1947 Palestine – 1948 Kenya Mau Mau Kenya uprising - 1955 uprising Churchill Returns: 1951-1955 Churchill He never really tried He to destroy the “welfare state” established by Attlee’s government. Attlee’s The Federated Republic The of Germany 1. Created in 1949 with the capital at Bonn. 2. Its army limited to 12 divisions [275,000]. 3. Konrad Adenauer, a Christian Democrat, was its 1st President. Coalition of moderates and conservatives. Pro-Western foreign policy. German “economic miracle.” 1. “Father of Modern Germany.” Italy After WW II Italy 1. Alcide de Alcide Gasperi was Gasperi Italy’s P.M. from 1948-1953 from 2. Coalition Coalition governments [short and unstable!] unstable!] Part II: “European Union” European Economic Integration European 1. 1947 General Agreement on Tariffs 1947 eneral greement and Trade [GATT] 23 nations. Became the foundation of postwar Became global commerce. global It set up procedures to handle It commercial complaints. commercial It provided a framework for It continuing negotiations [“rounds”]. continuing By 1990, 99 nations were By participating. participating. European Economic Integration European 2. 1952 European Coal & Steel 1952 uropean oal teel Community [ECSC]. HQ in Luxembourg. “Inner Six” Benelux nations, Inner France, Italy, W. Germany. Placed their coal and steel Placed industries under a form of supranational authority. supranational Eliminated tariff duties and Eliminated quotas on coal and steel. quotas European Economic Integration European 3. 1957 European Economic 1957 uropean conomic Community [EEC] HQ Brussels. HQ Treaty of Rome. European Economic Integration European 3. 1957 European Economic 1957 uropean conomic Community [EEC] France, W. Germany, Italy, Benelux. Created a larger free trade area, or Created customs union. customs Eliminate all trade barriers. One common tariff with the One outside world. outside Free movement of capital & Free labor. labor. European Economic Integration European 4. 1967 combined the ECSC & 1967 EEC to form the European Community uropean ommunity [EC]. [EC]. HQ Brussels. HQ European Parliament. “Eurocrats.” 518 members [elected by all voters 518 in Europe]. in Only limited legislative power. Court of Justice. European Economic Integration European 5. 1991-92 Maastricht Agreements 1991-92 Maastricht European Union [EU] created from the EC. uropean One currency, one culture, one social One area, and one environment! area, Create a “frontier-free” Europe a common Create EU passport. EU One large “common market.” Goods coming into the EU would have Goods high tariffs placed on them. 2002 a common currency [Euro] 2002 2003 60,000 men EU rapid defense 2003 force was created. ...
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