Unformatted text preview: Ms. Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley HS
Country” 17c: The “Dutch” Century
It was a political model.
A radical attitude towards religion
in the country.
A certain level of religious
Stable, thriving economy.
“Golden Age” of artists and
thinkers. Religion and everyday life were
recurring themes in their art.
recurring Dutch Society
Amsterdam, Rotterdam: granaries
with enough surplus for one year.
Generally higher salaries than in
any other parts of W. Europe.
any Even women had higher wages.
“Protestant work ethic.” Thrift and frugality.
Had the highest standard of living
in View of Doerdrecht
Aelbert Cuyp, 1650s Oude Kerk [Old Church],
Amsterdam First built in 1300. Interior of the Oude Kerk in
Amsterdam - Emmanuel De Witt
Amsterdam Emmanuel Catholic “Hidden” Church
in the Attic, Amsterdam, 1630s Interior of a Portuguese Synagogue in
Amsterdam – Emmanuel De Witte
Amsterdam Emmanuel Portrait of an Old Jewish Man
Rembrandt, Beware of Luxury – Jan Steen
Beware “Genre” Painting Still Life with Gilt Goblet
William Heda, 1635 “Genre” Painting Upper-class Homes, Amsterdam
Early 1600s Patrician Houses Along the
Canal in Leiden
Canal The Burgher of Delft & His
Daughter – Jan Steen The Leiden Baker & His Wife
Jan Steen A Young Woman with a Water Jug Young
Jan Vermeer, 1662
Jan Girl with a Pearl Earring
Jan Vermeer, 1665 The Dutch Economy
Exported diamonds, linens, pottery.
Not much inflation.
Great Dutch land reclamation
project was accelerated during this
Masters of the “carrying trade”
(lowest shipping rates in Europe).
(lowest 17c Dutch Global Commerce
17c Dutch East India Ship, mid-17c
mid-17c Return of the Dutch East India
Fleet, 1599 Amsterdam Stock Market (Bourse)
Emmanuel De Witte, 1653 Jewish refugees helped found it in 1602. Sampling Officials of the Drapers
Guild – Rembrandt - 1662
Guild Rembrandt The Lace Maker
Nicolaes Maes The Lace Maker
Jan Vermeer, 1669-1670 The Account Keeper
Nicolaes Maes, 1656 A Woman Holding a Balance
Jan Vermeer, 1662 View of Delft
Jan Vermeer, 1660-1661 Dutch
Delftware English Delftware Dutch West India
Company, 1621 Netherland
Antilles 18c Delftware Tobacco Jars
18c Fort Orange (Albany, NY)
in New Netherlands New Amsterdam (NYC)
Settled in 1624. Official Flag of the
of the City of NY. NYC Seal New Amsterdam (NYC)
New Early 20c Dutch Revival Building in NYC. Dutch East India Company, 1602
1602 “Africa” Center Panel
Jan van der Heyden, 1664-66 The Dutch in Japan, 18c
18c Dutch Ship in Nagasaki
Late 18c University of Leiden,
1575 R By 1645, it was the
largest university in the
R The separation of the
hindered the power of
any church to control
intellectual life in the
Dutch University of Gröningen, 1614
University R Along with Leiden,
they were the first
R Half of the students
were René Descartes
René The French philosopher lived in Leiden
from 1628 to 1649.
from Dutch Optics: The Telescope
Dutch Most agree that the telescope was
invented by Hans Lippershey in 1608.
invented Astronomical Pioneer:
Christiaan Huygens R Explanation of Saturn’s rings. R Wave theory of light. Anton van Leeuwenhoek:
The Microscope & the Discovery of
Micro-Organisms Anatomy Lecture of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp
– Rembrandt, 1632
Rembrandt, (detail) Anatomy Lecture of
Dr. Nicolaes Tulp – Rembrandt, 1632
Dr. Jan Vermeer and Optics
R Did Vermeer use some of the new
discoveries in optics?
R Did he use lenses to project the
image of the subject [camera
obscura] onto the canvas?
R It is argued that van Leeuwenhoek
was the model for his painting,
“The The Astronomer
Jan Vermeer, 1668 The Geographer
Jan Vermeer, 1668-1669 Girl Reading a Letter with the
Window Open - Jan Vermeer, 1657
Jan The Music Lesson
Jan Vermeer, 1662-1665 The Spanish Hapsburgs & Europe (1556)
The Philip II consolidated Hapsburg lands
at the end of the 16c. The Spanish Netherlands:
Union of Utrecht, 1579 The United Provinces still recognized Spanish rule,
but, in 1581, they declared their independence.
but, The Netherlands (1609)
The The Dutch Federation
- provincial level
- held virtually all the power
- strong advocates of local independence STADHOLDER
- States General representative from each province
- responsible for defense and order STATES GENERAL
- federal assembly
- foreign affairs (war)
- all issues had to be referred to the local Estates The Night Watch – Rembrandt, 1642
The Dutch Royal Palace, Amsterdam
Dutch 1648-1665 Count William II Granting Privileges
Cesare van Everdingen, 1654 Anglo-Dutch Wars
R First Anglo-Dutch War: 1660-1665 R Second Anglo-Dutch War: 1665-1667 R Third Anglo-Dutch War: 1674-1678 King William III
Queen Mary II
ascend the throne of England in 1689 after the
Glorious Revolution. William III of England:
“Dutch William” The final “revenge” of the Dutch? ...
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- Fall '08