Unformatted text preview: By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY Earlier Explorations
E arlier Explorations
1. Islam & the Spice Trade Malacca
2. A New Player Europe
Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271
Expansion becomes a state
enterprise monarchs had the
authority & the resources.
Better seaworthy ships. 1. Chinese Admiral Zheng He & the
Ming “Treasure Fleet” Admiral Zheng He
A dmiral Zheng He
Each ship was 400’
long and 160’ wide! 1371-1435 A Map of the Known World, A Map of the Known World,
pre 1492 1. Motives for European M otives for European Exploration
Crusades by-pass intermediaries to
get to Asia. 2. Renaissance curiosity about other
lands and peoples.
3. Reformation refugees &
4. Monarchs seeking new sources of
5. Technological advances.
6. Fame and fortune. New Maritime Technologies
N ew Maritime Technologies
[Portulan] Hartman Astrolabe
Mariner’s Compass Sextant New Weapons Technology
N ew Weapons Technology Prince Henry, the Navigator
P rince Henry, the Navigator School for Navigation, 1419 Museum of Navigation
M useum of Navigation
in Lisbon Portuguese Maritime P ortuguese Maritime Empire 1. Exploring the west coast of
2. Bartolomeo Dias, 1487.
3. Vasco da Gama, 1498.
1. Admiral Alfonso de
Albuquerque (Goa, 1510;
Malacca, 1511). Zheng He’s Voyages
Z heng He’s Voyages In 1498, Da Gama reached
Calcutta, China’s favorite port! Christofo Colon 
C hristofo Colon Columbus’ Four Voyages
C olumbus’ Four Voyages Other Voyages of Exploration
O ther Voyages of Exploration Ferdinand Magellan & the F erdinand Magellan & the First Circumnavigation of the World:
Early 16 c Atlantic Explorations
A tlantic Explorations Looking for “El Dorado” The First Spanish Conquests:
The Aztecs vs. Fernando Cortez
F ernando Cortez Montezuma II The Death of Montezuma II
T he Death of Montezuma II Mexico Surrenders to Cortez
M exico Surrenders to Cortez The First Spanish Conquests: The Incas vs. Francisco Pizarro
F rancisco Pizarro Atahualpa Slaves Working in a S laves Working in a Brazilian Sugar Mill The “Columbian Exchange”
T he “Columbian Exchange” Squash Avocado Peppers Sweet Potatoes Turkey Pumpkin Tobacco Quinine Cocoa Pineapple Cassava POTATO Peanut TOMATO Vanilla MAIZE Syphilis Trinkets Liquor GUNS Olive COFFEE BEAN Banana Rice Onion Turnip Honeybee Barley Grape Peach SUGAR CANE Oats Citrus Fruits Pear Wheat HORSE Cattle Sheep Pigs Smallpox Flu Typhus Measles Malaria Diptheria Whooping Cough Cycle of Conquest & C ycle of Conquest & Colonization
is Explorers Treasures
from the Americas! TransAtlantic Slave Trade
T ransAtlantic Slave Trade The Slave Trade
T he Slave Trade
1. Existed in Africa before the coming of
2. Portuguese replaced European slaves
Sugar cane & sugar plantations.
First boatload of African slaves brought
by the Spanish in 1518.
275,000 enslaved Africans exported
to other countries. 1. Between 16c & 19c, about 10 million
Africans shipped to the Americas. Slave Ship
S lave Ship “Middle Passage” “ Coffin” Position Below Deck African Captives
A frican Captives
Thrown Overboard Sharks followed the slave ships! European Empires in the E uropean Empires in the Americas The Colonial Class System
T he Colonial Class System
Creoles Mestizos Native Indians Mulattos Black Slaves Administration of the Spanish A dministration of the Spanish Empire in the New World
2. Council of
New Spain and Peru. 1. Papal agreement. The Influence of the Colonial T he Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church Guadalajara
Cathedral Spanish Mission
Spanish Our Lady of
Guadalupe The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 & T he Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 & The Pope’s Line of Demarcation Father Bartolome de Las Casas
F ather Bartolome de Las Casas New Laws 1542 New Colonial Rivals
N ew Colonial Rivals
1. Portugal lacked the numbers
and wealth to dominate trade in
the Indian Ocean.
2. Spain in Asia consolidated its
holdings in the Philippines.
3. First English expedition to the
Indies in 1591.
Surat in NW India in 1608.
1. Dutch arrive in India in 1595. New Colonial Rivals
N ew Colonial Rivals 1. Impact of European I mpact of European Expansion
Native populations ravaged by
disease. 2. Influx of gold, and especially
silver, into Europe created an
inflationary economic climate.
3. New products introduced across
the continents [“Columbian
4. Deepened colonial rivalries. 5. New Patterns of World 5 . New Patterns of World Trade ...
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