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EuropeanExplorationAndColonization - By Ms Susan M Pojer By...

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Unformatted text preview: By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer By: Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY Earlier Explorations E arlier Explorations 1. Islam & the Spice Trade Malacca 2. A New Player Europe Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271 Expansion becomes a state enterprise monarchs had the authority & the resources. Better seaworthy ships. 1. Chinese Admiral Zheng He & the Ming “Treasure Fleet” Admiral Zheng He A dmiral Zheng He Each ship was 400’ long and 160’ wide! 1371-1435 A Map of the Known World, A Map of the Known World, pre­ 1492 1. Motives for European M otives for European Exploration Crusades by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia. 2. Renaissance curiosity about other lands and peoples. 3. Reformation refugees & missionaries. 4. Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue. 5. Technological advances. 6. Fame and fortune. New Maritime Technologies N ew Maritime Technologies Better Maps [Portulan] Hartman Astrolabe (1532) Mariner’s Compass Sextant New Weapons Technology N ew Weapons Technology Prince Henry, the Navigator P rince Henry, the Navigator School for Navigation, 1419 Museum of Navigation M useum of Navigation in Lisbon Portuguese Maritime P ortuguese Maritime Empire 1. Exploring the west coast of Africa. 2. Bartolomeo Dias, 1487. 3. Vasco da Gama, 1498. Calicut. 1. Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque (Goa, 1510; Malacca, 1511). Zheng He’s Voyages Z heng He’s Voyages In 1498, Da Gama reached Calcutta, China’s favorite port! Christofo Colon [1451­1506] C hristofo Colon Columbus’ Four Voyages C olumbus’ Four Voyages Other Voyages of Exploration O ther Voyages of Exploration Ferdinand Magellan & the F erdinand Magellan & the First Circumnavigation of the World: Early 16 c Atlantic Explorations A tlantic Explorations Looking for “El Dorado” The First Spanish Conquests: The Aztecs vs. Fernando Cortez F ernando Cortez Montezuma II The Death of Montezuma II T he Death of Montezuma II Mexico Surrenders to Cortez M exico Surrenders to Cortez The First Spanish Conquests: The Incas vs. Francisco Pizarro F rancisco Pizarro Atahualpa Slaves Working in a S laves Working in a Brazilian Sugar Mill The “Columbian Exchange” T he “Columbian Exchange” Squash Avocado Peppers Sweet Potatoes Turkey Pumpkin Tobacco Quinine Cocoa Pineapple Cassava POTATO Peanut TOMATO Vanilla MAIZE Syphilis Trinkets Liquor GUNS Olive COFFEE BEAN Banana Rice Onion Turnip Honeybee Barley Grape Peach SUGAR CANE Oats Citrus Fruits Pear Wheat HORSE Cattle Sheep Pigs Smallpox Flu Typhus Measles Malaria Diptheria Whooping Cough Cycle of Conquest & C ycle of Conquest & Colonization Conq si on ar ie s Official European Colony! uista dore s Perm a Sett nent lers M is Explorers Treasures T reasures from the Americas! Trans­Atlantic Slave Trade T rans­Atlantic Slave Trade The Slave Trade T he Slave Trade 1. Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans. 2. Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans. Sugar cane & sugar plantations. First boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in 1518. 275,000 enslaved Africans exported to other countries. 1. Between 16c & 19c, about 10 million Africans shipped to the Americas. Slave Ship S lave Ship “Middle Passage” “ Coffin” Position Below Deck African Captives A frican Captives Thrown Overboard Sharks followed the slave ships! European Empires in the E uropean Empires in the Americas The Colonial Class System T he Colonial Class System Peninsulares Creoles Mestizos Native Indians Mulattos Black Slaves Administration of the Spanish A dministration of the Spanish Empire in the New World 1. Encomienda or forced labor. 2. Council of the Indies. Viceroy. New Spain and Peru. 1. Papal agreement. The Influence of the Colonial T he Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church Guadalajara Cathedral Cathedral Spanish Mission Spanish Our Lady of Guadalupe Guadalupe The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 & T he Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 & The Pope’s Line of Demarcation Father Bartolome de Las Casas F ather Bartolome de Las Casas New Laws 1542 New Colonial Rivals N ew Colonial Rivals 1. Portugal lacked the numbers and wealth to dominate trade in the Indian Ocean. 2. Spain in Asia consolidated its holdings in the Philippines. 3. First English expedition to the Indies in 1591. Surat in NW India in 1608. 1. Dutch arrive in India in 1595. New Colonial Rivals N ew Colonial Rivals 1. Impact of European I mpact of European Expansion Native populations ravaged by disease. 2. Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate. [“Price Revolution”] 3. New products introduced across the continents [“Columbian Exchange”]. 4. Deepened colonial rivalries. 5. New Patterns of World 5 . New Patterns of World Trade ...
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