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Unformatted text preview: By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY It was the best of times,
it was the worst of times,
it was the age of wisdom,
it was the age of foolishness,
it was the epoch of belief,
it was the epoch of incredulity…
it -- Charles Dickens
-A Tale of Two Cities The French Monarchy:
T he French Monarchy:
1775 1793 Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI Marie M arie Antoinette and the Royal Children Marie Antoinette’s
M arie Antoinette’s
“Peasant Cottage” Marie Antoinette’s
M arie Antoinette’s
“Peasant Cottage” The Necklace Scandal
T he Necklace Scandal 1,600,000 livres
[$100 million today] Y C a rd ina l Lo uis R e n é É d o u a rd d e R o h a n
Y T h e C o unte s s d e La Mo tte Let Them Eat Cake! L et Them Eat Cake! Y Marie Antoinette NEVER said that!
Y “Madame Deficit”
Y “The Austrian Whore” Crane Brinton’s Anatomy of a Y He borrowed his terms from pathology.
Y Compares a revolution to a fever or a disease:
Revolution The revolutionary “fever” begins with the appearance of certain “symptoms.” It proceeds by advances and retreats to a crisis stage, or “delirium.” The crisis ends when the “fever” breaks. A period of convalescence follows, interrupted by a relapse or two before the recovery is complete. Crane Brinton: Conditions Present C rane Brinton: Conditions Present Before a Revolution Occurs
1. People from all social classes are discontented.
2. People feel restless and held down by unacceptable restrictions in society, religion, the economy or the govt. 3. People are hopeful about the future, but they are being forced to accept less than they had hoped for. 4. People are beginning to think of themselves as belonging to a social class, and there is a growing bitterness between social classes. 5. The social classes closest to one another are the most hostile. Crane Brinton: Conditions Present C rane Brinton: Conditions Present Before a Revolution Occurs
6. The scholars and thinkers give up on the way their society operates. 7. The government does not respond to the needs of its society. 8. The leaders of the government and the ruling class begin to doubt themselves. Some join with the opposition groups. 9. The government is unable to get enough support from any group to save itself. 10. The government cannot organize its finances correctly and is either going bankrupt or trying to tax heavily and unjustly. SocioEconomic Data, 1789
S ocioEconomic Data, 1789 The French Urban Poor
T he French Urban Poor
0 % of Income Spent on Bread Financial Problems
in France, 1789
a Urban Commoner’s
– Food 80%
a King’s Budget:
– Rent 25%
TOTAL 170% –
– Interest 50%
TOTAL 160% French Budget, 1774
F rench Budget, 1774 Where is the tax money?
W here is the tax money? Lettres de Cachet
L ettres de Cachet
Y The French king could warrant
imprisonment or death in a
signed letter under his seal.
Y A carteblanche warrant. Y Cardinal Fleury issued 80,000
during the reign of Louis XV!
Y Eliminated in 1790. Ancien Regime Map, 1789
A ncien Regime The Suggested Voting Pattern:
Voting by Estates
2nd Estate 1
3rd Estate Louis XIV insisted that the ancient distinction of the three orders be conserved in its entirety. The Number of Representatives
in the Estates General: Vote by Head!
2nd Estate 300
3rd Estate Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes
E mmanuel Joseph Sieyes
1st What is the Third
2nd What has it been heretofore in the political order? Nothing!
3rd What does it demand? To become something therein! Abbé Sieyès
17481836 Convening the Estates General C onvening the Estates General May, 1789 Last time it was called into session was 1614! “ The Third Estate Awakens”
Y The commoners finally presented their credentials not as delegates of the Third Estate, but as “representatives of the nation.” Y They proclaimed themselves the “National Assembly” of France. “ The Tennis Court Oath”
by Jacques Louis David June 20, 1789 Europe on the Eve of the
E urope on the Eve of the
French Revolution Storming the Bastille, July 14, S torming the Bastille, Y 1789 A rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly.
Y 18 died.
Y 73 wounded.
Y 7 guards killed.
Y It held 7 prisoners [5 ordinary criminals & 2 madmen]. Crane Brinton: The Course that C rane Brinton: The Course that Revolutions Seem to Take
1. Impossible demands made of government which, if granted, would mean its end. 2. Unsuccessful government attempts to suppress revolutionaries. 3. Revolutionaries gain power and seem united.
4. Once in power, revolutionaries begin to quarrel among themselves, and unity begins to dissolve. 5. The moderates gain the leadership but fail to satisfy those who insist on further changes. Crane Brinton: The Course that C rane Brinton: The Course that Revolutions Seem to Take
6. Power is gained by progressively more radical groups until finally a lunatic fringe gains almost complete control. 7. A strong man emerges and assumes great power. 8. The extremists try to create a “heavenonearth” by introducing their whole program and by punishing all of their opponents. 9. A period of terror [extreme violence] occurs. 10. Moderate groups regain power. THE REVOLUTION IS OVER! The Great Fear: Peasant T he Great Fear: Peasant Revolt
(July 20, 1789) Y Rumors that the feudal aristocracy [the aristos] were sending hired brigands to attack peasants and pillage their land. The Path
T he Path
Fear” Night Session of August 4, 1789
N ight Session of August 4, 1789
Y Before the night was over: The feudal regime in France had been abolished. All Frenchmen were, at least in principle, subject to the same laws and the same taxes and eligible for the same offices. Equality & Meritocracy! National Constituent N ational Constituent Assembly
1789 1791 Libert é ! Egalit é ! Fraternit é ! August Decrees
August 411, 1789 (A renunciation of aristocratic privileges!) BUT . . . . .
B UT . . . . .
Y Feudal dues were not renounced outright [this had been too strong a threat to the principle of private property!] Y Peasants would compensate their landlords through a series of direct payments for obligations from which they had supposedly been freed. Therefore, the National Assembly made revolutionary gestures, but remained essentially moderate. Their Goal
Their Goal Safeguard the right of private property!! The Tricolor (1789)
T he Tricolor (1789) The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris. Citizen! The Tricolor is the Fashion!
T he Tricolor is the Fashion! The “Liberty Cap”: Bonne Rouge
T he “Liberty Cap”: Revolutionary Symbols
R evolutionary Symbols Cockade La Republic Revolutionary Clock Liberté Revolutionary Playing Cards
R evolutionary Playing Cards The Declaration of the Rights T he Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
August 26, 1789
V Resistance to oppression!
V Thomas Jefferson was in Paris at this time. The Declaration of the Rights T he Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Posed New Dilemmas
1. Did women have equal rights with men?
2. What about free blacks in the colonies?
3. How could slavery be justified if all men were born free?
4. Did religious toleration of Protestants and Jews include equal political rights? March of the Women,
M arch of the Women,
October 56, 1789 A spontaneous demonstration of Parisian women for bread. We want the baker, the baker’s wife and the baker’s boy! The “October Days” T he “October Days” (1789) The king was thought to be surrounded by evil advisors at Versailles so he was forced to move to Paris and reside at the Tuileries Palace. Planting the Tree of P lanting the Tree of Liberty 1790 Sir Edmund Burke (1790):
S ir Edmund Burke Reflections on the Revolution in France The conservative response to the French Revolution How to Finance the New H ow to Finance the New Govt.?
1. Confiscate Church Lands (1790) One of the most controversial decisions of the entire revolutionary period. 2.. Print 2
Assignats V Issued by the National Constituent Assembly.
V Interestbearing notes which had the church lands as security. Depreciation of the D epreciation of the Assignat V Whoever acquired them were entitled to certain privileges in the purchase of church land.
V The state would retire the notes as the land was sold.
V They began circulating as paper currency. Government printed more INFLATION [they lost 99% of their value ultimately].
Therefore, future governments paid off their creditors with cheap money. The Civil Constitution T he Civil Constitution of the Clergy
The oath of allegiance permanently divided the Catholic population! Clergy New Relations Between N ew Relations Between Church & State
V Government paid the salaries of the French clergy and maintained the churches.
V The church was reorganized: Parish priests elected by the district assemblies.
Bishops named by the department assemblies.
The pope had NO voice in the appointment of the French clergy. V It transformed France’s
Roman Catholic Church
into a branch of the state!! Pope Pius VI
 Louis XVI “Accepts” the L ouis XVI “Accepts” the Constitution & the National Assembly. 1791 The French Constitution of T he French Constitution of 1791:
A Bourgeois Government V The king got the “suspensive” veto [which prevented the passage of laws for 4 years]. He could not pass laws.
His ministers were responsible for their own actions. V A permanent, elected, single chamber National Assembly. Had the power to grant taxation. V An independent judiciary. The French Constitution of T he French Constitution of 1791:
A Bourgeois Government
V “Active” Citizen [who pays taxes amounting to 3 days labor] could vote vs. “Passive” Citizen. 1/3 of adult males were denied the franchise. Domestic servants were also excluded. V A newly elected LEGISLATIVE
GOAL Make sure that the country was not Make sure that the country was not turned over to the mob!
turned over to the mob! 83 Revolutionary Departments
8 3 Revolutionary February 26, 1790 The Royal Family Attempts T he Royal Family Attempts to Flee
Y June, 1791
Y Helped by the Swedish Count Hans Axel von Fusen [Marie Antoinette’s lover]. Y Headed toward the Luxembourg
border. Y The King was
the border Olympe de Gouges (17451793)
O lympe de Gouges V Women played a vital role in the Revolution.
V But, The Declaration of the Rights of Man did NOT extend the rights and protections of citizenship to women. Declaration of the
Rights of Woman
and of the Citizen
(1791) The First Coalition &
T he First Coalition &
The Brunswick Manifesto Duke of Brunswick(August 3, 1792) if the Royal Family is harmed, Paris will be leveled!!
PIEDMONT This military crisis undermined the new Legislative Assembly. French Soldiers & the Tricolor:
F rench Soldiers & the Tricolor:
Vive Le Patrie!
V The French armies were illprepared for the conflict.
V ½ of the officer corps had emigrated.
V Many men disserted.
V New recruits were enthusiastic, but
V French troops often broke ranks and fled in disorder. French Expansion: 17911799
F rench Expansion: Bibliographic Resources
B ibliographic Resources « “Hist210—Europe in the Age of Revolutions.”
« “Liberty, Fraternity, Equality: Exploring the
French Revolution.” http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/
« Matthews, Andrew. Revolution and Reaction:
Europe, 1789-1849. Cambridge
University Press, 2001.
« “The Napoleonic Guide.”
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