Unformatted text preview: By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY The “Second” French T he “Second” French Revolution The National Convention: Girondin Rule: 17921793 Jacobin Rule: 17931794
[“Reign of Terror”] Thermidorian Reaction: 17941795 The Directory 17951799 Attitudes &
& court Fear of
s The Causes of
Instability in France
1792 - 1795 Econom
Crises War Political
s The Jacobins
T he Jacobins Jacobin Meeting House They held their meetings in the library of a former Jacobin monastery in Paris. Started as a debating society. Membership mostly middle class. Created a vast network of clubs. The SansCulottes:
T he The Parisian Working Class Small shopkeepers. Tradesmen. Artisans. They shared many of the ideals of their middle class representatives in government! The SansCulottes
T he Depicted as Savages by a British Cartoonist. The Storming of the T he Storming of the Tuilieres:
August 910, 1792 This was triggered in part by the publication in Paris of the August 3 Brunswick Manifesto, which confirmed popular suspicions concerning the king’s treason. The September Massacres, 1792
T he September Massacres, (The dark side of the Revolution!) Rumors that the antirevolutionary political prisoners were plotting to break out & attack from the rear the armies defending France, while the Prussians attacked from the front.
Buveurs de sang [“drinkers of blood.”] over 1000 killed!
It discredited the Revolution among its remaining sympathizers abroad. The National Convention
T he National Convention
(September, 1792) Its first act was the formal abolition of the monarchy on September 22, 1792. The Year I of the French Republic. The Decree of Fraternity it offered French assistance to any subject peoples who wished to overthrow their governments. When France sneezes,
all of Europe catches cold!
all The Political Spectrum
T he Political Spectrum
Montagnards The Plain
(swing votes) Girondists (“The Mountain”) Monarchíen
(Royalists) Jacobins The Politics of the T he Politics of the National Convention (17921795)
Montagnards Girondists Power base in Paris. Power base in the provinces. Main support from the sansculottes. Feared the influence of the sansculottes. Would adopt extreme measures to achieve their goals. Feared the dominance of Paris in national politics. Saw Paris as the center of the Revolution. Supported more national government centralization [federalism]. More centralized [in Paris] approach to government. The “Purifying” Pot of the T he “Purifying” Pot of the Jacobin Louis XVI as a Pig
L ouis XVI as a Pig c For the Montagnards, the king was a traitor. c The Girondins felt that the Revolution had gone far enough and didn’t want to execute the king [maybe exile him]. Louis XVI’s Head (January 21, 1793)
L ouis XVI’s Head c The trial of the king was hastened by the discovery in a secret cupboard in the Tuilieres of a cache of documents. c They proved conclusively Louis’ knowledge and encouragement of foreign intervention. c The National Convention voted
387 to 334 to execute the monarchs. The Death of “Citizen” Louis T he Death of “Citizen” Louis Capet Matter for reflection
for the crowned
jugglers. So impure blood
doesn’t soil our land! Marie Antoinette as a M arie Antoinette as a Serpent The “Widow Capet”
Marie Antoinette M arie Antoinette on the Way to the Guillotine Marie Antoinette Died in M arie Antoinette Died in October, 1793 Attempts to Control
A ttempts to Control
the Growing Crisis
1. Revolutionary Tribunal in Paris try
A. Representatives-on-Mission sent to the provinces & to the army. had wide powers to oversee
B. Watch Committees [comité de
surveillance keep an eye on foreigners & suspects. C. Sanctioned the trial & execution of rebels and émigrés, should they ever return to France. Attempts to Control
A ttempts to Control
the Growing Crisis
2. The printing of more assignats to pay for the war.
3. Committee of Public Safety [CPS] to oversee and speed up the work of the government during this crisis. 2. Committee of General Security [CGS] responsible for the pursuit of
treatment of suspects, & other internal security matters. Committee for Public Safety
C ommittee for Public Safety Revolutionary Tribunals.
16,000 – 50,000 executed. Maximillian Robespierre
M aximillian Robespierre
(1758 – 1794) Georges Jacques Danton
G eorges Jacques Danton
(1759 – 1794) JeanPaul Marat
J eanPaul Marat
(1744 – 1793) “ The Death of Marat”
by Jacques Louis David, 1793 The Assassination of Marat
T he Assassination of Marat
by Charlotte Corday, 1793 The Assassination of Marat
T he Assassination of Marat
by Charlotte Corday
View] The Levee en Masse:
T he An Entire Nation at Arms! – 500,000 Soldiers An army based on merit, not birth! Legislation Passed by L egislation Passed by the National Convention
1. Law of General Maximum September 5, 1793. Limited prices of grain & other essentials to 1/3
above the 1790 prices & wages to ½ of 1790
figures. Prices would be strictly enforced. Hoarders rooted out and punished. Food supplies would be secured by the army! 2. Law of Suspects September 17, 1793. This law was so widely drawn that almost anyone
not expressing enthusiastic support for the republic could be placed under arrest! The Reign of Terror
T he Reign of Terror
Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt,
severe, inflexible. Robespierre
Let terror be the
order of the day!
c The Revolutionary Tribunal of Paris alone executed 2,639 victims in 15 months. c The total number of victims nationwide was over 20,000! The Guillotine:
T he Guillotine:
An “Enlightenment Tool” ?
Oh, thou charming guillotine,
You shorten kings and queens;
By your influence divine,
We have re-conquered our rights.
Come to aid of the Country
And let your superb instrument
Become forever permanent
To destroy the impious sect.
Sharpen your razor for Pitt and his agents
Fill your divine sack with heads of tyrants.
Fill Different Social Classes D ifferent Social Classes Executed 7%
8% 28% 25%
31% The “Monster” T he “Monster” Guillotine The last guillotine execution in France was in 1939!
The last guillotine execution in France was in War of Resistance to the Revolution:
War of Resistance to the Revolution:
The Vendee Revolt, 1793 Vendee Revolt, 1793
V endee Drowning the Traitors! Vendee Symbol:
For God & the King! Why was there a Revolt
W hy was there a Revolt
in the Vendee ?
1. The need for 300,000 French troops
for the war effort.
2. Rural peasantry still highly taxed.
3. Resentment of the Civil Constitution the Clergy.
4. Peasants had failed to benefit from
the sale of church lands. TARGETS: Local government officials
Jurying priests Political Propaganda
P olitical Propaganda The Contrast:
T he Contrast: “French Liberty / British Slavery” Religious Terror:
R eligious Terror: DeChristianization (17931794) The Catholic Church was linked with
real or potential counterrevolution. Religion was associated with the
Ancien Régime and superstitious
practices. Very popular among the sansculottes. Therefore, religion had no place in a
rational, secular republic! The DeChristianization Program
T he DeChristianization Program
1. The adoption of a new Republican Calendar: abolished Sundays & religious holidays.
months named after seasonal features.
7day weeks replaced by 10day decades. the yearly calendar was dated from
the creation of the Republic [Sept. 22, 1792] The Convention symbolically divorced the state from the Church!! A Republican Calendar
A Republican Calendar The New Republican Calendar
T he New Republican Calendar
New Name Meaning Time Period Vendemaire Vintage September 22 – October 21 Brumaire Fog October 22 – November 20 Frimaire Frost November 21 – December 20 Nivose Snow December 21 – January 19 Pluviose Rain January 20 – February 18 Ventose Wind February 19 – March 20 Germinal Budding March 21 – April 19 Floreal Flowers April 20 – May 19 Prairial Meadow May 20 – June 18 Messidor Harvest June 19 – July 18 Thermidor Heat July 19 – August 17 Fructidor Fruit August 18 – September 21 A New Republican Calendar Year
A New Republican Calendar Year
I 1792 – 1793 II 1793 – 1794 III 1794 – 1795 IV 1795 – 1796 V 1796 – 1797 VI 1797 – 1798 VII 1798 – 1799 VIII 1799 – 1800 IX 1800 – 1801 X 1801 – 1802 XI 1802 – 1803 XII 1803 – 1804 XIII 1804 – 1805 XIV 1805 The Gregorian System returned in 1806. 2. The DeChristianization T he DeChristianization Program
The public exercise of religion was
banned. 3. The Paris Commune supported the: destruction of religious & royal statues.
ban on clerical dress.
encouragement of the clergy to give up their vocations. 2. The Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris was turned into the “Temple of Reason.”
3. The deportation of priests denounced by
six citizens. The “Temple of Reason”
T he “Temple of Reason” Come, holy Liberty, inhabit this temple,
Become the goddess of the French people.
Become The Festival of Supreme Being
T he Festival of Supreme Being A new secular holiday Backlash to the
B acklash to the
DeChristianization Program It alienated most of the population
(especially in the rural areas). Robespierre never supported it. he persuaded the Convention to
reaffirm the principle of religious
toleration. Decree on the “Liberty of Cults”
was passed December 6, 1793. BUT, it had little practical effect! The T he Radical’s Arms:
No Constitution! The Terror Intensified:
T he Terror Intensified:
March to July, 1794
Hébert & the
Hérbetists Danton & the
“Indulgents” Executed in March, 1794 Executed in April, 1794 Law of 22 Prairial [June 10, 1794]. Trials were now limited to deciding only on liberty OR death, with defendants having no rights. Were you an “enemy of the people?” (the law was so broadly written that almost anyone could fall within its definition!) 1,500 executed between June & July. French Victory at Fleurus
F rench Victory at Fleurus June 26, 1794.
France defeated Austria.
This opened the way to the reoccupation of Belgium! The “Thermidorean Reaction,” T he “Thermidorean Reaction,” 1794
July 26 Robespierre gives a P July 26 Robespierre gives a speech illustrating new plots & conspiracies. he alienated members of the CPS & CGS. many felt threatened by his implications. P July 27 the Convention arrests Robespierre.
P July 28 Robespierre is tried & guillotined! T he Arrest of Robespierre The Revolution Consumes
T he Revolution Consumes
Its Own Children! Danton Awaits Execution, 1793 Robespierre Lies Wounded
Before the Revolutionary Tribunal that will order him to be guillotined, 1794. The “Cultural T he “Cultural Revolution”Brought About by the Convention It was premised upon Enlightenment principles of rationality.
The metric system of weights and measures Was defined by the French Academy of Sciences in 1791 and enforced in 1793. It replaced weights and measures that had their origins in the Middle Ages. The abolition of slavery within France in 1791 and throughout the French colonies in 1794.
The Convention legalized divorce and enacted shared inheritance laws [even for illegitimate offspring] in an attempt to eradicate inequalities. Read More About the R ead More About the Revolution Bibliographic Resources
B ibliographic Resources “Hist210—Europe in the Age of Revolutions.”
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/history/courses/europe1/chron/rch “Liberty, Fraternity, Equality: Exploring the
http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/ Matthews, Andrew. Revolution and Reaction:
Europe, 1789-1849. Cambridge
University Press, 2001. “The Napoleonic Guide.”
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