Industrialization

Industrialization - By Ms Susan M Pojer By Horace Greeley...

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Unformatted text preview: By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer By: Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY Late 18c: French Economic Advantages V Napoleonic Code. V French communal law. ) ) ) Free contracts Open markets Uniform & clear commercial regulations Standards weights & measures. Established technical schools. The government encouraged & honored inventors & inventions. V Bank of France European model providing a reliable currency. V V V French Economic Disadvantages V Years of war ) ) ) Supported the American Revolution. French Revolution. Early 19c Napoleonic Wars V Heavy debts. V High unemployment soldiers returning from the battlefronts. V French businessmen were afraid to take risks. That Nation of Shopkeepers! That Nation of Shopkeepers! ­­ Napoleon Bonaparte The Enclosure Movement “Enclosed” Lands Today Metals, Woolens, & Canals Early Canals Britain’s Earliest Transportation Infrastructure Mine & Forge [1840­1880] ù More powerful than water is coal. ù More powerful than wood is iron. ù Innovations make steel feasible. “Puddling” [1820] – “pig iron.” “Hot blast” [1829] – cheaper, purer steel. Bessemer process [1856] – strong, flexible steel. Coalfields & Industrial Areas Coal Mining in Britain: 1800­1914 1800 1800 1 ton of coal 50, 000 miners 1850 30 tons 200, 000 miners 1880 300 million tons 500, 000 miners 1914 250 million tons 1, 200, 000 miners Young Coal Miners Child Labor in the Mines Child “hurriers” British Pig Iron Production Richard Arkwright: “Pioneer of the Factory System” The “Water Frame” Factory Production ) Concentrates production in one place [materials, labor]. ) Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets]. ) Requires a lot of capital investment [factory, machines, etc.] more than skilled labor. ) Only 10% of English industry in 1850. Textile Factory Workers in England 1813 2400 looms 150, 000 workers 1833 85, 000 looms 200, 000 workers 1850 224, 000 looms >1 million workers The Factory System Rigid schedule. 12­14 hour day. Dangerous conditions. Mind­numbing monotony. Textile Factory Workers in England British Coin Portraying a Factory, 1812 Young “Bobbin­Doffers” Jacquard’s Loom John Kay’s “Flying Shuttle” The Power Loom James Watt’s Steam Engine Steam Tractor Steam Ship An Early Steam Locomotive Later Locomotives The Impact of the Railroad “The Great Land Serpent” Crystal Palace Exhibition: 1851 Exhibitions of the new industrial utopia. Crystal Palace: Interior Exhibits Crystal Palace: British Ingenuity on Display Crystal Palace: American Pavilion 19c Bourgeoisie: The Industrial Nouveau Riche Criticism of the New Bourgeoisie Stereotype of the Factory Owner “Upstairs”/“Downstairs” Life Factory Wages in Lancashire, 1830 Age of Worker Male Wages Female Wages under 11 2s 3d. 2s. 4d. 11 ­ 16 4s. 1d. 4s. 3d. 17 ­ 21 10s. 2d. 7s. 3d. 22 ­ 26 17s. 2d. 8s. 5d. 27 ­ 31 20s. 4d. 8s. 7d. 32 ­ 36 22s. 8d. 8s. 9d. 37 ­ 41 21s. 7d. 9s. 8d. 42 ­ 46 20s. 3d. 9s. 3d. 47 ­ 51 16s. 7d. 8s. 10d. 52 ­ 56 16s. 4d. 8s. 4d. 57 ­ 61 13s. 6d. 6s. 4d. Industrial Staffordshire Problems of Polution The Silent Highwayman ­ 1858 The New Industrial City Early­19c London by Gustave Dore Worker Housing in Manchester Factory Workers at Home Workers Housing in Newcastle Today The Life of the New Urban Poor: A Dickensian Nightmare! Private Charities: Soup Kitchens Private Charities: The “Lady Bountifuls” The Luddites: 1811­1816 Attacks on the “frames” [power looms]. Ned Ludd [a mythical figure supposed to live in Sherwood Forest] The Luddite Triangle The Luddites The Neo­Luddites Today Peterloo Massacre, 1819 British British Soldiers Fire on British Workers: Let us die like men, and not be sold like slaves! The Chartists Key Chartist Chartist settlements Centres of Chartism Chartism Area of plug riots, 1842 riots, The “Peoples’ Charter” V Dra fte d in 1 8 3 8 b y Willia m Lo ve tt. V R a d ic a l c a m p a ig n fo r P a rlia m e nta ry re fo rm o f th e ine q ua litie s c re a te d b y th e R e fo rm Bill o f 1 8 3 2 . Vo te s fo r a ll m e n . Eq u a l e le c to ra l d is tric ts . Ab o litio n o f th e re q uire m e nt th a t Me m b e rs o f P a rlia m e nt [MP s ] b e p ro p e rty o wne rs . P a ym e nt fo r Me m b e rs o f P a rlia m e nt. An nua l g e n e ra l e le c tio ns . T h e s e c re t b a llo t. The Chartists A female Chartist A physical force— Chartists arming for the fight. Anti­Corn Law League, 1845 4 Give manufactures more outlets for 4 4 4 4 4 their products. Expand employment. Lower the price of bread. Make British agriculture more efficient and productive. Expose trade and agriculture to foreign competition. Promote international peace through trade contact. Thomas Malthus Population growth will outpace the food supply. War, disease, or famine could control population. The poor should have less children. Food supply will then keep up with population. David Ricardo “Iron Law of Wages.” When wages are high, workers have more children. More children create a large labor surplus that depresses wages. The Utilitarians: Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill The goal of society is the greatest good for the greatest number. There is a role to play for government intervention to provide some social safety net. Jeremy Bentham The Socialists: Utopians & Marxists People as a society would operate and own the means of production, not individuals. Their goal was a society that benefited everyone, not just a rich, well­connected few. Tried to build perfect communities [utopias]. Government Response k Abolition of slavery in the colonies in 1832 [to raise wages in Britain]. k Sadler Commission to look into to working conditions Factory Act [1833] – child labor. [1833] k New Poor Law [1834] – indoor relief. Poor houses. k Reform Bill [1832] – broadens the [1832] vote for the cities. British Reform Bill of 1832 British Reform Bills By 1850: Zones of Industrialization on the European Continent ù ù ù ù ù ù Northeast France. Belgium. The Netherlands. Western German states. Northern Italy East Germany Saxony Industrialization By 1850 Railroads on the Continent Share in World Manufacturing Output: 1750­1900 The Politics of Industrialization ù State ownership of some industries. ) RRs Belgium & most of Germany. ù Tariffs British Corn Laws. ù National Banks granted a monopoly on issuing bank notes. ) ) Bank of England. Bank of France. ù Companies required to register with the government & publish annual budgets. ù New legislation to: ) ) Establish limited liability. Create rules for the formation of corporations. ù Postal system. ù Free trade zones Ger. Zollverein Bibliographic Sources ) “Images of the Industrial Revolution.” Mt. Holyoke College. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/rschwart/ind_rev/imag es/images­ind­era.html ) “The Peel Web: A Web of English History.” http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/mbloy/c­eight/primary.htm ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2012 for the course HISTORY 103 taught by Professor Livingston during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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