NeoClassicism - By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer B y: Ms. Susan M....

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Unformatted text preview: By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer B y: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY Overview of Neo­Classicism O verview of Neo­Classicism $ Art produced in Europe and North America from the mid-18c to the early 19c. $ More than just an antique revival a reaction against the surviving Baroque & Rococo styles. $ Linked to contemporary political events: S Revolutions established republics in France and in America. [Neo-Classicism was adapted as the official art style]. S Association with the democracy of Greece and the republicanism of Rome. S Napoleon used the style for propaganda. 1. Excavations of the Ruins 1 . Excavations of the Ruins of Italian Cities Pompeii in 1748. Herculaneum in 1738. 2. Publication of Books on Antiquity 2 . Publication of Books on Antiquity James Stuart & Nicholas Revert Antiquities in Athens: 1762-1816. 3. Arrival of the Elgin Marbles 3 . Arrival of the Elgin Marbles Thomas Bruce, 7th Lord of Elgin British Museum, 1806 From the top façade of the Parthenon in Athens. 4. Johann Winckelmann’s Artists 4 . Johann Winckelmann’s Artists Circle $ Artists should “imitate” the timeless, ideal forms of the classical world. $ A circle of international artists gathered about him in the 1760s in Rome. German art historian. $ Characteristics of Neo­ C haracteristics of Neo­ Classicism Return to the perceived “purity” of the arts of Rome. $ Model the “ideal” of the ancient Greek arts and, to a lesser, extent, 16c Renaissance classicism. $ A conviction that there is a permanent, universal way things are (and should be), which obviously entails fundamental political and ethical commitments. $ Sometimes considered anti-modern or even reactionary. Robert Adam R obert Adam Syon House The Red Salon Scottish architect & designer Syon House 1760s Claude Nicholas Ledoux C laude Nicholas Ledoux $ Designed a pavilion in 1771 for the Comtesse du Barry at Louveciennes. $ Designed a series of city gates for Paris (1785-1789). Claude Nicholas Ledoux C laude Nicholas Ledoux Rotunde de la Villette, Paris John Wood J ohn Wood “The Royal Crescent [Circus]” at Bath, England (1754). The “Empire Style”: Charles Percier & Pierre Fran ç ois L é onard $ Napoleon’s official Fontaine architects. $ They remade Paris in the intimidating opulence of Roman imperial architectural style. Greek­Inspired Architecture Bank of England Rotunda Sir John Soane, 1796 British Museum Portico Sir Robert Smirke, 1823-1847 The “Federal Style” in America T he “Federal Style” $ 1780 – 1820. $ Thomas Jefferson’s influence. University of VA Monticello, VA U. S. Capitol The “Greek Revival Style” in America T he “Greek Revival Style” Second Bank of the US Philadelphia, 1824 “ Parnassus” Anton Raphael Mengs, 1761 Mengs was the leading artist of early Neo-Classicism. “ The Oath of Brutus” Gavin Hamilton, 1767 The oath was sworn as a promise of individual revenge against a corrupt monarchy. “ The Death of Socrates” Jacques­Louis David, 1787 The death of Socrates was a symbol of republican virtue. “ The Oath of the Horatii” Jacques­Louis David, 1784 A depiction of dutiful patriotism. “ The Consecration of Napoleon & Josephine” Jacques­Louis David, 1805­1807 A very different theme: The celebration of worldly splendor and power. “ The Apotheosis of Homer” Jean­Auguste­Dominique Ingres, 1827 This assembly of great artists and writers of all ages gathered to honor the ancient Greek poet before a classical temple. “ Romulus—Victory over Acron” Jean­Auguste­Dominique Ingres, 1812 Painted for Napoleon’s palace in Rome. “ The Sabine Women” Jean Auguste Ingres, 1799 Neo­Classical Sculpture N eo­Classical Sculpture $ Profoundly influenced by ancient art since the Renaissance. $ Neo-Classical sculptors avoided the dramatic twisting poses and colored marble surfaces characteristic of late Baroque and Rococo sculpture. $ They preferred: S Crisp contours. S A noble stillness. S Idealized white marble forms. Antonio Canova A ntonio Canova “Apollo Crowning Himself,” 1781 “Perseus with the Head of Medusa,” 1804-1806 Antonio Canova A ntonio Canova “Paulina Bonaparte,” 1808 “Hercules” Bertel B ertel Thorvaldsen “Jason,” 1803-1823 “Adonis,” 1808-1832 Furniture F urniture $ The furniture designs used Greco-Roman motifs. $ Became known as style étrusque [“Etruscan style”] in France. $ Were favored by the court of Louis XV and later by Napoleon I. Josiah J osiah Wedgwood Greek vases found in excavations became models for this new type of ceramics. Neo­Classicism Continued N eo­Classicism Continued Into the 19c and Beyond…. Brandenburg Gate, Berlin Buckingham Palace, London The Gate of Alcala, Madrid $ By the mid-19s, several European cities were transformed into veritable museums of Neo-Classical architecture. American Renaissance” Movement A merican Renaissance” Movement American Museum of Natural History National Gallery of Art Lincoln Memorial $ A Neo-Classical expression in Beaux-Arts architecture. The “Sunset” of Neo­Classicism T he “Sunset” of Neo­Classicism $ Sir Edwin Lutyan a monumental city plan for New Delhi during the British Raj. Rashtrapati Bhavan [President’s House] India Gate Monument ...
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