Unformatted text preview: The Age of
By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY An Overview of the 18c
► Political History >>> Reform
► Intellectual History Newtonian Physics Reason
► Cultural History Individualism
► Social History Increased Literacy “Age of Aristocracy”
► Economic History > Mercantilism to Capitalism 18c Politics
► BRITAIN – Constitutional Monarchy
► FRANCE Royal Absolutism
Royal (cultural and religious unity)
► PRUSSIA, HABSBURG EMPIRE, RUSSIA “Enlightened Despotism”
► OTTOMAN EMPIRE – traditional
traditional empire The Origins of Enlightenment?
SCIENTIFIC Newton’s system was synonymous with the empirical and the practical. Scientific laws could be expressed as
Scientific universal mathematical formulas.
universal Science allowed alternatives to be imagined in everything from politics
to religion. William Blake’s Newton, 1795 The Royal Academy of Sciences, Paris Zoology & Biology A dissection at the Royal Academy,
London. Chemistry Labs & Botany Gardens Natural History Collections
► Cocoa plant
► Sir Hans
► Collected from Jamaica. Natural History Collections James Petiver’s Beetles
(London apothecary) Private Collections The Origins of Modern Museums. Women & Science The German
Hevelius & his
the The Origins of Enlightenment?
RELIGIOUS physico-theology – an attempt (inspired by science) to explain
God’s Providence by reference to
his work in nature & not primarily
through his biblical Word.
through support of a “rational” religion,
from mysteries, miracles, and The Origins of Enlightenment?
V The belief in the existence of a God or
The supreme being but a
denial of revealed religion, basing
one’s belief on the light of nature
and reason. Deists saw no point in any particular religion; they recognized only a distant
God, uninvolved in the daily life of man. The Origins of Enlightenment?
V The belief that God and nature are one and the same. Gradually, highly educated
Gradually, Protestants & Catholics thought
more about God’s work as
revealed through science, rather
than through the Scriptures.
than Centers of the Enlightenment The Characteristics of the Enlightenment
1. Rationalism reason is the arbiter of all
2. Cosmology a new concept of man, his
Cosmology existence on earth, & the
place of the earth in the
3. Secularism application of the methods
science to religion &
philosophy. The Characteristics of the Enlightenment
4. Scientific Method Mathematical analysis Experimentation Inductive reasoning. 5. Utilitarianism the greatest good for
Utilitarianism the greatest number.
6. Tolerance No opinion is worth
Tolerance burning your neighbor for. The Characteristics of the Enlightenment
7. Optimism & Self-Confidence The belief that man is intrinsically good. The belief in social progress. 8. Freedom Of thought and expression. Bring liberty to all men (modern battle
Bring against absolutism).
8. Education of the Masses The Characteristics of the Enlightenment
10. Legal Reforms Justice, kindness, and charity no torture
Justice, or indiscriminant incarceration.
or Due process of law.
Due 11. Constitutionalism
11. Written constitutions listing citizens,
rights. 12. Cosmopolitanism. The “Enlightened” Individual The Philosophe ► Not really original thinkers as a whole, but were great
Not publicists of the new thinking CHANGE & PROGRESS!
► They were students of society who analyzed its evils and
They advanced reforms.
advanced The “Great Debate”
& Logic rationalism
Superstitions nostalgia for
religions irrationalism emotionalism Marquis de Condorcet (1743-1794)
► Progress of the Human
Progress Mind, 1794
Mind An expectation of
An universal happiness.
universal Every individual guided
by reason could enjoy
true He advocated a free and
equal rights for women.
equal John Locke (1632-1704)
► Letter on Toleration, 1689
► Two Treatises of
► Some Thoughts
► The Reasonableness
of Christianity, 1695 John Locke’s Philosophy (I)
► The individual must become a “rational creature.”
► Virtue can be learned and practiced.
► Human beings possess free will. they should be prepared for freedom.
obedience should be out of conviction,
not out of fear. ► Legislators owe their power to a contract
contract with the people.
► Neither kings nor wealth are divinely
ordained. John Locke’s Philosophy (II)
► There are certain natural rights that
There are endowed by God to all human
beings. life, liberty, property! ► The doctrine of the Divine Right of
The Kings was nonsense.
► He favored a republic as the best
He form of government.
form Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
► Critique of Pure
Critique Reason, 1781
► “What is
Metaphysical Foundations of
Natural Science, 1786
1786 Kant’s Philosophy
► Dare to Know!
► He introduced the concept of transcendentalism some things are
known by methods other than empirically.
known The belief in the existence of a non-rational
The way to understand things.
way The existence of neither time nor space is
determined by empirical understanding.
determined These type of things are a priori.
V They transcend sensory experience.
V They are pure, not empirical [[concepts like
faith, pre-existence, life after death].
faith, Thomas Paine (1737-1809) ► Common Sense, 1776
► The Rights of
The Man, 1791
Man The American “Philosophes” John Adams
(1745-1826) Ben Franklin
(1743-1826) …...…life, liberty, and the pursuit of
...…life, Voltaire (1712-1778)
► AKA Francois Marie
► Essay on the Customs and Spirit of Nations,
► Candide, 1759
Philosophical Dictionary, 1764
Dictionary Voltaire’s “Wisdom” (I)
► Every man is guilty of all the good he didn’t do.
► God is a comedian playing to an audience
too afraid to laugh.
► If God did not exist, it would be necessary
to invent him.
► It is dangerous to be right when the
government is wrong.
► Love truth and pardon error.
Love Voltaire’s “Wisdom” (II)
► Judge of a man by his questions rather than
Judge by his answers.
► Men are equal; it is not birth, but virtue
that makes the difference.
► Prejudice is opinion without judgment.
► The way to become boring is to say
► I may not agree with what you have to say,
but I will defend to the death your right to
say it. David Hume (1711-1776)
► The Natural History
The of Religion [[(1755]).
► Belief in God rested
Belief on superstition and
fear rather than on
reason. Edward Gibbon (1737-1794)
► The Decline and Fall of the Roman
volumes), He pointed out problems
He with contemporary England
and tried to urge reform.
and The Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) ► Persian Letters, 1721
► On the Spirit of
On Laws, 1758
Laws Montesquieu’s Philosophy
► Three types of government: Monarchy. Republic. Despotism. A separation of political powers
ensured freedom and liberty.
ensured Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
► A Discourse on
Discourse the Sciences and
► Emile, 1762.
► The Social
The Contract, 1762.
Contract, Rousseau’s Philosophy (I)
► Question Does progress in the arts and sciences correspond with progress in
morality? As civilizations progress, they move away
As from morality.
from Science & art raised artificial barriers
between people and their natural state.
between Therefore, the revival of science and the arts
had corrupted social morals, not improved
them! Rousseau’s Philosophy (II) Virtue exists in the ”state of nature,” but
lost in “society.”
lost Government must preserve “virtue” and
”liberty.” Man is born free, yet everywhere he is in
chains. The concept of the ”Noble Savage.”
”Noble Liberty, Equality, Fraternity. Civil liberty invest ALL rights and
liberties into a society.
liberties Rousseau’s Philosophy (III)
► In The Social Contract:
In The The right kind of political order could make
people truly moral and free.
people Individual moral freedom could be achieved
only by learning to subject one’s individual
interests to the “General Will.”
interests Individuals did this by entering into a social
contract not with their rulers, but with each
V This social contract was derived from
This human nature, not from history, tradition,
or the Bible.
or Rousseau’s Philosophy (IV)
► People would be most free and moral under
People a republican form of government with direct
► However, the individual could be “forced to
be free” by the terms of the social contract.
be He provided no legal protections for
He individual rights.
individual ► Rousseau’s thinking: Had a great influence on the French
revolutionaries of 1789.
revolutionaries His attacks on private property inspired the
communists of the 19c such as Karl Marx.
Enlightenment A Parisian Salon Madame Geoffrin’s Salon The Salonnieres Madame Geoffrin
Julie de Lespinasse
(1739-1794) Other Female Salons
► Wealthy Jewish women created nine of the
Wealthy fourteen salons in Berlin.
► In Warsaw, Princess Zofia Czartoryska
In gathered around her the reform leaders of
► Middle-class women in London used their
Middle-class salons to raise money to publish women’s
writings. Female Philosophes
► Emilie du Chatalet,
Emilie a French noblewoman
► Wrote extensively about the mathematics and
physics of Gottfried
Wilhelm von Lebnitz and
► Her lover, Voltaire, learned much of his
Her science from her.
science Denis Diderot (1713-1784)
► All things must be
All examined, debated,
exception and without
regard for anyone’s
► We will speak against
We senseless laws until they
are reformed; and, while
we wait, we will abide by
them. Diderot’s Encyclopédie The Encyclopédie
► Complete cycle of
change the general way of thinking.
► 28 volumes.
► Alphabetical, cross-referenced, illustrated.
► First published in 1751.
► 1500 livres a set.
1500 livres Pages from Diderot’s Encyclopedie Pages from Diderot’s Encyclopedie Pages from Diderot’s Encyclopedie Subscriptions to Diderot’s Encyclopedie The “Republic of Letters”
► URBAN – gathering of elites in the
gathering cities. (salons)
► URBANE – cosmopolitan, worldly
cosmopolitan worldly music, art, literature, politics read newspapers & the latest books. ► POLITENESS – proper behavior [
proper [self-governed] Reading During the Enlightenment
► Literacy: 80%%% o/o for men; 60 o/o women. ► Books were expensive (one day’s wages).
► Many readers for each book (20 : 1) novels, plays & other literature. journals, memoirs, “private lives.” philosophy, history, theology. newspapers, political pamphlets. An Increase in Reading An Increase in Reading “Must Read” Books of the Time “Enlightened
Despotism” Frederick the Great of Prussia (r. 1740-1786)
► 1712 -– 1786.
► Succeeded his father,
Succeeded Frederick William I
(the “Soldier King”).
► He saw himself
He as the “First
Servant of the State.” Catherine the Great (r. 1762-1796) ► German Princess
► 1729 -– 1796.
1729 Reformer? OR Despot?
1767: Catherine summons the Legislative
1768-1774: Russo-Turkish War.
1771-1775: Pugachev Rebellion is suppressed.
1772: First partition of Poland.
1785: Charter of Nobility.
1793: Second partition of Poland.
1795: Third partition of Poland.
1795: Reformer? OR Despot? The Partitions of Poland - 1772
- 1795 Russian Expansionism in the Late 18c Joseph II of Austria (r. 1765-1790)
► 1741 -– 1790.
► His mother was
His Maria Theresa. Habsburg Family Crest Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor
1772: First partition of Poland.
1778-1779: He failed to annex Bavaria to Austrian lands.
1781: Declared the Toleration Patent.
1781: Abolition of serfdom and feudal dues.
1785: He failed to exchange the Austria
Netherlands for Bavaria.
1787-1792: Austria joined Russia in the Russo-Turkish
War, but little was gained.
1795: Third partition of Poland.
1795: Joseph II of Austria The Legacy of the Enlightenment?
1. The democratic revolutions begun in
The America in 1776 and continued in
Amsterdam, Brussels, and especially in
Paris in the late 1780s, put every
Western government on the defensive.
2. Reform, democracy, and republicanism
Reform, had been placed irrevocably on the
Western The Legacy of the Enlightenment?
3. New forms of civil society arose –-- clubs,
New salons, fraternals, private academies,
lending libraries, and
4. 19c conservatives blamed it for the modern “egalitarian disease” (once
reformers began to criticize established
institutions, they didn’t know where and
when to stop!)
when The Legacy of the Enlightenment?
5. It established a materialistic tradition
It based on an ethical system derived solely
from a naturalistic account of the
human condition (the “Religion of
6. Theoretically endowed with full civil and
Theoretically legal rights, the individual had come into
existence as a political and social force to
be reckoned with.
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