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TheEnlightenment - The Age of The Reason& Enlightenment...

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Unformatted text preview: The Age of The Reason & Enlightenment Enlightenment By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer By: Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY An Overview of the 18c ► Political History >>> Reform >>> ► Intellectual History Newtonian Physics Reason ► Cultural History Individualism ► Social History Increased Literacy “Age of Aristocracy” ► Economic History > Mercantilism to Capitalism 18c Politics ► BRITAIN – Constitutional Monarchy Constitutional ► FRANCE Royal Absolutism Royal (cultural and religious unity) ► PRUSSIA, HABSBURG EMPIRE, RUSSIA “Enlightened Despotism” “Enlightened ► OTTOMAN EMPIRE – traditional traditional empire The Origins of Enlightenment? ► SCIENTIFIC: SCIENTIFIC Newton’s system was synonymous with the empirical and the practical. Scientific laws could be expressed as Scientific universal mathematical formulas. universal Science allowed alternatives to be imagined in everything from politics to religion. William Blake’s Newton, 1795 The Royal Academy of Sciences, Paris Zoology & Biology A dissection at the Royal Academy, dissection London. London. Chemistry Labs & Botany Gardens Natural History Collections ► Cocoa plant Cocoa drawing. drawing. ► Sir Hans Sir Sloane Sloane (1660-1753). ► Collected from Jamaica. Natural History Collections James Petiver’s Beetles (London apothecary) Private Collections The Origins of Modern Museums. Women & Science The German The astronomer Hevelius & his wife examine the heavens. the The Origins of Enlightenment? ► RELIGIOUS: RELIGIOUS physico-theology – an attempt (inspired by science) to explain God’s Providence by reference to his work in nature & not primarily work through his biblical Word. through support of a “rational” religion, support free free from mysteries, miracles, and The Origins of Enlightenment? ► RELIGIOUS: RELIGIOUS Deism V The belief in the existence of a God or The supreme being but a supreme denial of revealed religion, basing one’s belief on the light of nature light of and reason. Deists saw no point in any particular religion; they recognized only a distant religion; distant God, uninvolved in the daily life of man. The Origins of Enlightenment? ► RELIGIOUS: RELIGIOUS Pantheism V The belief that God and nature are one and the same. Gradually, highly educated Gradually, Protestants & Catholics thought more about God’s work as revealed through science, rather revealed rather than through the Scriptures. than Centers of the Enlightenment The Characteristics of the Enlightenment 1. Rationalism reason is the arbiter of all Rationalism things. 2. Cosmology a new concept of man, his Cosmology existence on earth, & the place of the earth in the universe. 3. Secularism application of the methods Secularism of of science to religion & philosophy. The Characteristics of the Enlightenment 4. Scientific Method Mathematical analysis Experimentation Inductive reasoning. 5. Utilitarianism the greatest good for Utilitarianism the greatest number. 6. Tolerance No opinion is worth Tolerance burning your neighbor for. The Characteristics of the Enlightenment 7. Optimism & Self-Confidence The belief that man is intrinsically good. The belief in social progress. 8. Freedom Of thought and expression. Bring liberty to all men (modern battle Bring against absolutism). against 8. Education of the Masses The Characteristics of the Enlightenment 10. Legal Reforms Justice, kindness, and charity no torture Justice, or indiscriminant incarceration. or Due process of law. Due 11. Constitutionalism 11. Written constitutions listing citizens, Written rights. rights. 12. Cosmopolitanism. The “Enlightened” Individual The Philosophe ► Not really original thinkers as a whole, but were great Not publicists of the new thinking CHANGE & PROGRESS! CHANGE ► They were students of society who analyzed its evils and They advanced reforms. advanced The “Great Debate” Reason & Logic rationalism empiricism tolerance skepticism Deism Traditions and Superstitions nostalgia for nostalgia the past past organized organized religions religions irrationalism emotionalism Marquis de Condorcet (1743-1794) ► Progress of the Human Progress Mind, 1794 Mind An expectation of An universal happiness. universal Every individual guided Every by reason could enjoy true independence. true He advocated a free and He equal education, constitutionalism, and equal rights for women. equal John Locke (1632-1704) ► Letter on Toleration, 1689 1689 ► Two Treatises of Government, 1690 ► Some Thoughts Concerning Education, 1693 ► The Reasonableness of Christianity, 1695 John Locke’s Philosophy (I) ► The individual must become a “rational creature.” ► Virtue can be learned and practiced. ► Human beings possess free will. they should be prepared for freedom. obedience should be out of conviction, not out of fear. ► Legislators owe their power to a contract contract with the people. with ► Neither kings nor wealth are divinely Neither ordained. ordained. John Locke’s Philosophy (II) ► There are certain natural rights that There are endowed by God to all human beings. beings. life, liberty, property! ► The doctrine of the Divine Right of The Kings was nonsense. Kings ► He favored a republic as the best He form of government. form Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) ► Critique of Pure Critique Reason, 1781 Reason ► “What is What Enlightenment?”, 1784 1784 ► Metaphysical Metaphysical Foundations of Foundations Natural Science, 1786 Natural 1786 Kant’s Philosophy ► Dare to Know! ► He introduced the concept of transcendentalism some things are transcendentalism known by methods other than empirically. known The belief in the existence of a non-rational The way to understand things. way The existence of neither time nor space is The determined by empirical understanding. determined These type of things are a priori. priori V They transcend sensory experience. V They are pure, not empirical [[concepts like [concepts faith, pre-existence, life after death]. faith, Thomas Paine (1737-1809) ► Common Sense, 1776 1776 ► The Rights of The Man, 1791 Man The American “Philosophes” John Adams (1745-1826) Ben Franklin (1706-1790) Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) …...…life, liberty, and the pursuit of ...…life, Voltaire (1712-1778) ► AKA Francois Marie AKA Arouet. Arouet. ► Essay on the Customs and Spirit of Nations, 1756 1756 ► Candide, 1759 ► Philosophical Philosophical Dictionary, 1764 Dictionary Voltaire’s “Wisdom” (I) ► Every man is guilty of all the good he didn’t do. ► God is a comedian playing to an audience too afraid to laugh. ► If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him. ► It is dangerous to be right when the government is wrong. ► Love truth and pardon error. Love Voltaire’s “Wisdom” (II) ► Judge of a man by his questions rather than Judge by his answers. ► Men are equal; it is not birth, but virtue Men that makes the difference. ► Prejudice is opinion without judgment. Prejudice ► The way to become boring is to say everything. ► I may not agree with what you have to say, may but I will defend to the death your right to say it. David Hume (1711-1776) ► The Natural History The of Religion [[(1755]). ► Belief in God rested Belief on superstition and fear rather than on reason. reason. Edward Gibbon (1737-1794) ► The Decline and Fall of the Roman Fall Empire (6 volumes), 1787. volumes), He pointed out problems He with contemporary England and tried to urge reform. and The Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) ► Persian Letters, 1721 ► On the Spirit of On Laws, 1758 Laws Montesquieu’s Philosophy ► Three types of government: Monarchy. Republic. Despotism. A separation of political powers separation ensured freedom and liberty. ensured Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) ► A Discourse on Discourse the Sciences and Arts, 1750 Arts ► Emile, 1762. ► The Social The Contract, 1762. Contract, Rousseau’s Philosophy (I) ► Question Does progress in the arts and sciences correspond with progress in morality? NO! morality? As civilizations progress, they move away As from morality. from Science & art raised artificial barriers Science between people and their natural state. between Therefore, the revival of science and the arts Therefore, had corrupted social morals, not improved them! them! Rousseau’s Philosophy (II) Virtue exists in the ”state of nature,” but Virtue lost in “society.” lost Government must preserve “virtue” and Government ”liberty.” ”liberty.” Man is born free, yet everywhere he is in Man chains. chains. The concept of the ”Noble Savage.” ”Noble Liberty, Equality, Fraternity. Civil liberty invest ALL rights and Civil liberties into a society. liberties Rousseau’s Philosophy (III) ► In The Social Contract: In The The right kind of political order could make The people truly moral and free. people Individual moral freedom could be achieved Individual only by learning to subject one’s individual interests to the “General Will.” interests Individuals did this by entering into a social Individuals contract not with their rulers, but with each other. other. V This social contract was derived from This human nature, not from history, tradition, or the Bible. or Rousseau’s Philosophy (IV) ► People would be most free and moral under People a republican form of government with direct democracy. democracy. ► However, the individual could be “forced to However, be free” by the terms of the social contract. be He provided no legal protections for He individual rights. individual ► Rousseau’s thinking: Had a great influence on the French Had revolutionaries of 1789. revolutionaries His attacks on private property inspired the His communists of the 19c such as Karl Marx. communists Popularizing Popularizing the Enlightenment A Parisian Salon Madame Geoffrin’s Salon The Salonnieres Madame Geoffrin (1699-1777) Mademoiselle Julie de Lespinasse (1732*-1776) Madame Suzanne Necker (1739-1794) Other Female Salons ► Wealthy Jewish women created nine of the Wealthy fourteen salons in Berlin. fourteen ► In Warsaw, Princess Zofia Czartoryska In gathered around her the reform leaders of Poland-Lithuania. Poland-Lithuania. ► Middle-class women in London used their Middle-class salons to raise money to publish women’s writings. writings. Female Philosophes ► Emilie du Chatalet, Emilie a French noblewoman French (1706-1749). ► Wrote extensively about the mathematics and physics of Gottfried Wilhelm von Lebnitz and Isaac Newton. ► Her lover, Voltaire, learned much of his Her science from her. science Denis Diderot (1713-1784) ► All things must be All examined, debated, investigated without exception and without regard for anyone’s feelings. feelings. ► We will speak against We senseless laws until they are reformed; and, while we wait, we will abide by them. them. Diderot’s Encyclopédie The Encyclopédie ► Complete cycle of Complete knowledge…………...… knowledge…………...… change the general way of thinking. ► 28 volumes. ► Alphabetical, cross-referenced, illustrated. ► First published in 1751. ► 1500 livres a set. 1500 livres Pages from Diderot’s Encyclopedie Pages from Diderot’s Encyclopedie Pages from Diderot’s Encyclopedie Subscriptions to Diderot’s Encyclopedie The “Republic of Letters” ► URBAN – gathering of elites in the gathering cities. (salons) (salons) ► URBANE – cosmopolitan, worldly cosmopolitan worldly music, art, literature, politics read newspapers & the latest books. ► POLITENESS – proper behavior [ proper [self-governed] Reading During the Enlightenment ► Literacy: 80%%% o/o for men; 60 o/o women. ► Books were expensive (one day’s wages). ► Many readers for each book (20 : 1) novels, plays & other literature. journals, memoirs, “private lives.” philosophy, history, theology. newspapers, political pamphlets. An Increase in Reading An Increase in Reading “Must Read” Books of the Time “Enlightened Despotism” Frederick the Great of Prussia (r. 1740-1786) ► 1712 -– 1786. 1712 ► Succeeded his father, Succeeded Frederick William I (the “Soldier King”). ► He saw himself He as the “First “First Servant of the State.” Catherine the Great (r. 1762-1796) ► German Princess German Sophie Friederike Auguste of Anhalt-Zerbst. ► 1729 -– 1796. 1729 Reformer? OR Despot? 1767: Catherine summons the Legislative 1767: Catherine Legislative Commission. 1768-1774: Russo-Turkish War. Russo-Turkish 1771-1775: Pugachev Rebellion is suppressed. 1771-1775: Pugachev is 1772: First partition of Poland. 1772: 1785: Charter of Nobility. 1785: Charter 1793: Second partition of Poland. 1793: 1795: Third partition of Poland. 1795: Reformer? OR Despot? The Partitions of Poland - 1772 - 1793 - 1795 Russian Expansionism in the Late 18c Joseph II of Austria (r. 1765-1790) ► 1741 -– 1790. 1741 ► His mother was His Maria Theresa. Habsburg Family Crest Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor 1772: First partition of Poland. 1772: 1778-1779: He failed to annex Bavaria to Austrian lands. 1781: Declared the Toleration Patent. 1781: Toleration 1781: Abolition of serfdom and feudal dues. 1781: Abolition 1785: He failed to exchange the Austria 1785: Netherlands for Bavaria. 1787-1792: Austria joined Russia in the Russo-Turkish 1787-1792: War, but little was gained. 1795: Third partition of Poland. 1795: Joseph II of Austria The Legacy of the Enlightenment? 1. The democratic revolutions begun in The America in 1776 and continued in Amsterdam, Brussels, and especially in Paris in the late 1780s, put every Western government on the defensive. Western 2. Reform, democracy, and republicanism Reform, had been placed irrevocably on the Western agenda. Western The Legacy of the Enlightenment? 3. New forms of civil society arose –-- clubs, New salons, fraternals, private academies, lending libraries, and professional/scientific organizations. professional/scientific 4. 19c conservatives blamed it for the modern “egalitarian disease” (once reformers began to criticize established institutions, they didn’t know where and when to stop!) when The Legacy of the Enlightenment? 5. It established a materialistic tradition It based on an ethical system derived solely from a naturalistic account of the human condition (the “Religion of human Nature”). Nature” 6. Theoretically endowed with full civil and Theoretically legal rights, the individual had come into legal individual existence as a political and social force to be reckoned with. be ...
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