Unformatted text preview: American Foreign Policy:
Ms. Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY Foreign Policy Tensions
Foreign Policy Tensions
Interventionism Disarmament • C o lle c tive s e c urity • Is o la tio nis m • “Wils o nia nis m ” • Na tivis ts • Bus ine s s inte re s ts • AntiWa r m o ve m e nt • C o ns e rva tive R e p ub lic a ns American Isolationism
5 Isolationists like Senator Lodge, refused to allow the US to sign the Versailles Treaty. 5 Security treaty with France also rejected by the Senate. 5 July, 1921 Congress passed a resolution declaring WW I officially over! Sen. Henry Cabot
Lodge, Sr. [R-MA]
Lodge, Washington Disarmament Washington Disarmament Conference
(19211922) 5 Longstanding AngloJapanese alliance (1902) obligated Britain to aid Japan in the event of a Japanese war with the United States. 5 Goals naval disarmament and the political situation in the Far East. FivePower Treaty (1922)
FivePower Treaty 5 A battleship ratio was achieved through this ratio: US Britain Japan France Italy 5 5 3 1.67 1.67 5 Japan got a guarantee that the US and Britain would stop fortifying their Far East territories [including the Philippines]. 5 Loophole no restrictions on small warships European Debts to the US
European Debts to the US HyperInflation in Germany: 1923
HyperInflation in Germany: Dawes Plan (1924)
Dawes Plan Young Plan (1930)
Young Plan 5 For three generations, you’ll have to slave away!
5 $26,350,000,000 to be paid over a period of 58½ years.
5 By 1931, Hoover declared a debt moratorium. Locarno Pact (1925)
Locarno Pact 5 Guaranteed the common boundaries of Belgium, France, and Germany as specified in the Treaty of Versailles of 1919. 5 Germany signed treaties with Poland and Czechoslovakia, agreeing to change the eastern borders of Germany by arbitration only. Clark Memorandum (1928)
Clark Memorandum 5 Clark pledged that the US would not intervene in Latin American affairs in order to protect US property rights. 5 This was a complete rebuke of the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine! Secretary of State
J. Reuben Clark KelloggBriand Pact (1928)
KelloggBriand Pact 5 15 nations dedicated to outlawing aggression and war as tools of foreign policy. 5 62 nations signed.
5 Problems no means of actual enforcement and gave Americans a false sense of security. Japanese Attack Manchuria Japanese Attack Manchuria (1931) 5 League of Nations condemned the action. 5 Japan leaves the League.
5 Hoover wanted no part in an American military action in the Far East. HooverStimpson Doctrine
(1932) 5 US would not recognize any territorial acquisitions that were achieved by force. 5 Japan was infuriated because the US had
conquered new territories a few decades earlier. 5 Japan bombed Shanghai in 1932 massive casualties. FDR’s “Good Neighbor” Policy
FDR’s “Good Neighbor” Policy
5 Important to have all nations in the Western Hemisphere united in lieu of foreign aggressions. 5 FDR The good neighbor respects himself and the rights of others. 5 Policy of nonintervention and cooperation. FDR Recognizes the Soviet FDR Recognizes the Soviet Union (late 1933) 5 FDR felt that recognizing Moscow might bolster the US against Japan. 5 Maybe trade with the USSR would help the US economy during the Depression. Nye Committee Hearings
Nye Committee Hearings
5 The Nye Committee I investigated the charge that WW I was needless and the US entered so munitions owners could make big profits [“merchants of death.”] 5 The Committee did charge Senator Gerald P. Nye [R-ND] that bankers wanted war to protect their loans & arms manufacturers to make money. 5 Claimed that Wilson had provoked Germany by sailing in to warring nations’ waters. 5 Resulted in Congress passing several Neutrality Acts. FDR’s “I hate war” Speech (1936)
FDR’s “I hate war” Speech (1936) Ludlow Amendment (1938)
Ludlow Amendment (1938)
5 A proposed amendment to the Constitution that called for a national referendum on any declaration of war by Congress. 5 Introduced several times by Congressman Ludlow. Congressman Louis Ludlow
[D-IN] 5 Never actually passed. Neutrality Acts: 1935, 1936, 1937
Neutrality Acts: 1935, 1936, 1937
5 When the President proclaimed the existence of a foreign war, certain restrictions would automatically go into effect: Prohibited sales of arms to belligerent nations. Prohibited loans and credits to belligerent nations. Forbade Americans to travel on vessels of nations at war [in contrast to WW I]. Nonmilitary goods must be purchased on a “cashandcarry” basis pay when goods are picked up. Banned involvement in the Spanish Civil War.
5 This limited the options of the President in a crisis.
5 America in the 1930s declined to build up its forces! US Neutrality
US Neutrality Panay Incident (1937)
Panay Incident (1937)
5 December 12, 1937.
5 Japan bombed USS Panay gunboat & three
Standard Oil tankers on
the Yangtze River. 5 The river was an international waterway. 5 Japan was testing US resolve!
5 Japan apologized, paid US an indemnity, and promised no further attacks.
5 Most Americans were satisfied with the apology.
5 Results Japanese interpreted US tone as a license for further aggression against US interests. Spanish Civil War (19361939)
Spanish Civil War The American “Lincoln Brigade” Fascist Aggression
5 1935: Hitler denounced the Versailles Treaty & the League of Nations [rearming!] Mussolini attacks Ethiopia. 5 1936: German troops sent into the Rhineland. Fascist forces sent to fight with Franco in Spain. 5 1938: Austrian Anschluss. RomeBerlin Tokyo Pact [AXIS] Munich Agreement APPEASEMENT! 5 1939: German troops march into the rest of Czechoslovakia. HitlerStalin NonAggression Pact. 5 September 1, 1939: German troops march into Poland blitzkrieg WW II begins!!! 1939 Neutrality Act
1939 Neutrality Act
5 In response to Germany’s invasion of Poland.
5 FDR persuades Congress in special session to allow the US to aid European democracies in a limited way: The US could sell weapons to the European democracies on a “cash
andcarry” basis. FDR was authorized to proclaim danger zones which US ships and citizens could not enter. 5 Results of the 1939 Neutrality Act: Aggressors could not send ships to buy US munitions. The US economy improved as European demands for war goods helped bring the country out of the 193738 recession. 5 America becomes the “Arsenal of Democracy.” “America First” Committee Charles Lindbergh “LendLease” Act (1941)
Great Britain.........................$31 billion
Soviet Union...........................$11 billion
France......................................$ 3 billion
Other European.................$500 million
South America...................$400 million
The amount totaled: $48,601,365,000 Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto Pearl Harbor from the Cockpit of Pearl Harbor from the Cockpit of a Japanese Plane Pearl Harbor – Dec. 7, 1941 A date which will live in infamy!
A date which will live in infamy! FDR Signs the War Declaration
FDR Signs the War Declaration USS Arizona, Pearl Harbor
USS Arizona Pearl Harbor Memorial 2,887 Americans Dead!
2,887 Americans Dead! Pacific Theater of Operations
Pacific Theater of Operations “Tokyo Rose” Paying for the War
Paying for the War Paying for the War
Paying for the War Paying for the War
Paying for the War Betty Grable: Allied Pinup Girl
Betty Grable: Allied Pinup Girl (She Reminded Men What They Were Fighting For) ...
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