AndrewJackson - Ms S us a n M P oje r Ms Hora ce Gre e le y HS Hora Cha ppa qua NY C ha Es s e ntia l Que s tion Es Champion of Champion the

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Unformatted text preview: Ms . S us a n M. P oje r Ms Hora ce Gre e le y HS Hora Cha ppa qua , NY C ha Es s e ntia l Que s tion: Es Champion of Champion the “Common Man”? “Common OR “King” Andrew? Voting Re quire me nts in the Ea rly 19c in Vote r Turnout: 1820 - 1860 1 860 C a mpa igning “on the S tump” 3 3 Why Incre a s e d White male suffrage increased De mocra tiza tion? Dnominating committees. e Party 3 Voters chose their state’s slate of Presidential Voters electors. electors. 3 Spoils system. 3 Rise of Third Parties. 3 Popular campaigning (parades, rallies, floats, Popular etc.) etc.) 3 Two-party system returned in the 1832 election: Dem-Reps Natl. Reps.(1828) Whigs Dem-Reps (1832) Republicans (1854) Democrats (1828) J a cks on’s Firs t He rmita ge Re s ide nce He F irs t Known P a inting of J a cks on, 1815 of G e ne ra l J a cks on During the S e minole Wa rs Wa The “Common Ma n’s ” Ma P re s ide ntia l Ca ndida te Ca J a cks on’s Oppone nts in 1824 in Henry Clay [KY] John Quincy Adams [MA] William H. Crawford [GA] John C. Calhoun [SC] R e s ults of the 1824 Ele ction E le A “Corru pt pt Ba rga i Ba 3 3 O ppos ition to J ohn Some believed he allowed too much political Some Quincy Q control to be held by Ada ms control uincy elites. Some objected to his support of national Some economic development on constitutional grounds. grounds. Adams believed a strong, active central Adams government was necessary. government A national university. An astronomical observatory. A naval academy. 3 Many Americans saw Adams’ vision of a Many might nation led by a strong president as a threat to individual liberties. threat Ta riff Ba ttle s Ta 3 Tariff of 1816 on imports of cheap textiles. Tariff 3 Tariff of 1824 on iron goods and more Tariff expensive woolen and cotton imports. expensive 3 Tariff of 1828 higher tariffs on imported Tariff raw materials [like wool & hemp]. raw Supported by Jacksonians to gain votes Supported from farmers in NY, OH, KY. from The South alone was adamantly against it. As producers of the world’s cheapest As cotton, it did not need a protective tariff. cotton, They were negatively impacted American They textiles and iron goods [or the taxed English goods] were more expensive! goods] Vote s in the Hous e for the “Ta riff of Abomina tion” “Ta 3 La nd & India n John Quincy Adams: P olicie s His land policies gave westerners anothr His reason to dislike him. reason He attempted to curb speculation for public He lands his opponent accused him of denying their individual rights and freedoms to expand westward! to He supported the land rights of Native He Americans against white settlers. Americans 1825 govt. officials negotiated a treaty 1825 with a group of Creek Indians to cede their land rights to GA. land The Creek Indians appealed to Adams to The renounce the treaty. renounce Congress sided with the governor of GA. The 1828 Ele ction The 3 Jackson’s campaign was engineered by Jackson’s Senator Martin Van Buren of NY Senator He wanted to recreate the old He Jeffersonian coalition of: Jeffersonian Northern farmers and artisans. Southern slave owners. Farmers with small land holdings. He created the Democratic Party from the He remains of Jefferson’s old party: remains Created a national committee that Created oversaw local and state party units. oversaw Mass meetings, parades, picnics. A lot of political mudslinging on both sides. Ra che l J a cks on Ra Final Divorce Decree J a cks on in Mourning for His Wife for 1 828 Ele ction Re s ults Re The Ce nte r of P opula tion in the C ountry Move s Country WES T WES The Ne w “J a cks on The Planter Elite in the South Coa lition” C oa 3 3 People on the Frontier 3 Artisans [competition from factory labor]. 3 State Politicians spoils system To the victor belong the spoils of the enemy! [William Marcy of NY] 3 Immigrants in the cities. J a cks on a s S a ta n Da ngle s the S poils of Victory ove r his S upporte rs J a cks on’s Fa ith in the “Common Ma n” “Common 3 Intense distrust of Eastern “establishment,” monopolies, & “establishment,” special privilege. special 3 His heart & soul was with the “plain folk.” 3 Belief that the common man was Belief capable of uncommon achievements. achievements. The Re ign of “King Mob” Mob” Andre w J a cks on a s P re s ide nt The “P e ggy Ea ton Affa ir” Affa The We bs te r-Ha yne De ba te De Sen. Daniel Sen. Webster Webster [MA] Sen. Robert Sen. Hayne Hayne [SC] 1830 1 830 Webster: Webster Liberty and Union, now and Liberty forever, one and inseparable. Jackson: Jackson Our Federal Union—it must be Our preserved. Calhoun: Calhoun The Union, next to our liberty, The most dear. C a lhoun As ce nds the P la tform tha t Le a ds to De s potis m De 1832 Ta riff Conflict 1 832 3 1832 --> new tariff 3 South Carolina’s reaction? 3 Jackson’s response? 3 Clay’s “Compromise” Clay’s Tariff? Tariff C la ys S e ws Up J a cks on’s Mouth (1834) (1834) India n Re mova l India 3 Jackson’s Goal? 3 1830 Indian Removal Act 1830 Indian 3 Cherokee Nation v. GA (1831) (1831) * “domestic dependent nation” 3 Worcester v. GA (1832) (1832) 3 Jackson: John Marshall has made his John decision, now let him enforce it! The Che roke e Na tion Afte r 1820 Afte India n Re mova l India The Gra nd Na tiona l Ca ra va n Moving We s t Ca Tra il of Te a rs (1838Tra 1839) J a cks on’s P rofe s s e d “Love ” for “Love Na tive Ame rica ns J a cks on’s Us e of Fe de ra l P owe r Fe VETO 1830 Maysville Road project 1830 Maysville project in KY [state of his political rival, Henry Clay] The Na tiona l Ba nk De ba te De Nicholas Biddle [an arrogant aristocrat from Philadelphia] President Jackson Oppos ition to the 2 O ppos B.U.S . B.U.S “Soft” (paper) $ 3 3 state bankers felt it restrained their banks from issuing bank notes freely. supported rapid supported economic growth & speculation. speculation. nd “Hard” (specie) $ 3 felt that coin was felt the only safe the currency. 3 didn’t like any bank that issued bank notes. 3 suspicious of suspicious expansion & expansion speculation. 3 The “Mons te r” Is De s troye d! De “Pet Banks” 3 1832 Jackson 1832 vetoed the extension of the 2nd National extension Bank of the United States. Bank 3 1836 the charter expired. 1836 3 1841 the bank went 1841 bankrupt! bankrupt! The Downfa ll of “Mothe r Ba nk” “Mothe The Ba nk & the 1832 Ele ction E le 3 Jackson saw Biddle’s pushing forward a bill Jackson to renew the Bank’s charter earlier as an attempt to block his re-election! attempt Biddle & his associates preferred Clay. Jackson refused to sign the bill to recharter. The Bank is trying to destroy me, but I The will destroy it! will Jackson drops Calhoun and runs with Jackson Martin Van Buren. Martin BUT, both parties [Democrats & Whigs] had BUT, contradictory positions regarding their party principles, to many of the issues of the day! principles, An 1 832 Ca rtoo Ca n: “King P os itions on the Ke y Is s ue s of 1832 Is WHIG S • Less concerned about the Less • • • • • widening gap between rich and poor. and Opposed “liberal capitalism” Opposed because they believed it would lead to economic chaos. chaos. Strong national govt. to Strong coordinate the expanding economy was critical. economy Opposes Indian removal. Favored tariffs. Supported a National Bank. DEMO C R AT S • Felt the widening gap Felt • • • • • • • between rich and poor was alarming. alarming. Believed that bankers, Believed merchants, and speculators were “non-producers” who used their govt. connections to line their own pockets. to Govt. should have a handsoff approach to the economy off to allow the little guy a chance to prosper. chance For Indian removal. Oppose tariffs. States’ rights. Oppose federal support for Oppose internal improvements. internal Opposed the National Bank. 1 832 Ele ction Re s ults Re The 1836 Ele ction Re s ults Re Martin Van Buren “Old Kinderhook” [O. K.] The S pe cie 3 Speculators created “wildcat Speculators Circula r (1836) Canks” that fueled the ircula b runaway inflation. runaway 3 So, buy future federal land So, only with gold or silver. only This move shocked the system. 3 Jackson’s goal to curb the Jackson’s land speculation. land R e s ults of the S pe cie $ Banknotesircula r value. Circula C loose their $ Land sales plummeted. $ Credit not available. $ Businesses began to fail. $ Unemployment rose. The Panic of 1837! The P a nic of 1837 Hits Eve ryone ! Hits The P a nic of 1837 S pre a ds Quickly! Andre w J a cks on in Re tire me nt Re P hoto of Andre w J a cks on in 1844 (one ye a r be fore his de a th) 1767 - 1845 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2012 for the course HISTORY 102 taught by Professor Rotunda during the Fall '10 term at Rutgers.

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