Early19cIndustrializationInAmerica - Susan M. Pojer Susan...

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Unformatted text preview: Susan M. Pojer Susan Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY ESSENTIAL QUESTION: First Turnpike- 1790 Lancaster, PA By 1832, nearly 2400 mi. of road connected By most major cities. most Cumberland (National Road), 1811 Conestoga Covered Wagons Conestoga Trail, 1820s Erie Canal System Erie Canal, 1820s Begun in 1817; completed in 1825 Robert Fulton & the Steamboat 1807: The Clermont 1807: Clermont Principal Canals in 1840 Inland Freight Rates Clipper Ships The “Iron Horse” Wins! (1830) 1830 13 miles of track built by Baltimore & Ohio RR 1830 By 1850 9000 mi. of RR track [1860 31,000 mi.] By The Railroad Revolution, 1850s Immigrant labor built the No. RRs. Slave labor built the So. RRs. built Resourcefulness & Experimentation Americans were willing to try Americans anything. anything. They were first copiers, then innovators. 1800 41 patents were approved. 1800 41 1860 4,357 “ 1860 4,357 “ “ Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin, 1791 Actually invented Actually by a slave! by Eli Whitney’s Gun Factory Interchangeable Parts Rifle Oliver Evans First automated flour First mill mill First prototype of the locomotive John Deere & the Steel Plow (1837) Cyrus McCormick & the Mechanical Reaper: 1831 Samuel F. B. Morse 1840 – Telegraph Cyrus Field & the Transatlantic Cable, 1858 Elias Howe & Isaac Singer 1840s Sewing Machine The “American Dream” z They all regarded material advance as They the natural fruit of American republicanism & proof of the country’s virtue and promise. virtue A German visitor in the 1840s, Friedrich German List, observed: List, Anything new is quickly introduced here, Anything including all of the latest inventions. There is no clinging to old ways. The moment an American hears the word “invention,” he pricks up his ears. “invention,” Boom/Bust Cycles: 1790-1860 The blue line shows, for comparison, the price of The a year’s tuition at Harvard College. In 1790 it was $24, but by 1860 had risen to $104. $24, Creating a Business-Friendly Climate Supreme Court Rulings: * Fletcher v. Peck (1810) Fletcher * Dartmouth v. Woodward (1819) Dartmouth * McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) McCulloch * Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) Gibbons * Charles Rivers Bridge v. Warren Charles Bridge (1835) General Incorporation Law passed General passed in New York, 1848. Laissez faire BUT, govt. did much Laissez BUT, to assist capitalism! Distribution of Wealth v During the American Revolution, 45% of all wealth in the top 10% of the population. v 1845 Boston top 4% owned over 65% of the wealth. v 1860 Philadelphia top 1% owned over 50% of the wealth. v The gap between rich and poor was The widening! Polarization of Wealth in the 20c Samuel Slater (“Father of the Factory System”) The Lowell/Waltham System: First Dual-Purpose Textile Plant Francis Cabot Lowell’s town - 1814 Lowell in 1850 Lowell Mill Early Textile Mill Loom Floor Early Textile Loom New England Textile Centers: 1830s New England Dominance in Textiles Starting for Lowell Lowell Girls What was their typical “profile?” Lowell Boarding Houses What was boardinghouse life like? Lowell Mills Time Table Early “Union” Newsletter The Factory Girl’s Garland February 20, 1845 issue. I’m a Factory Girl Filled with Wishes I'm a factory girl Everyday filled with fear From breathing in the poison air Wishing for windows! I'm a factory girl Tired from the 13 hours of wok each day And we have such low pay Wishing for shorten work times! I'm a factory girl Never having enough time to eat Nor to rest my feet Wishing for more free time! I'm a factory girl Sick of all this harsh conditions Making me want to sign the petition! So do what I ask for because I am a factory girl And I'm hereby speaking for all the rest! Irish Immigrant Girls at Lowell American View of the Irish Immigrant The Early Union Movement Workingman’s Party (1829) Workingman’s (1829) * Founded by Robert Dale Owen and others in New York City. Early unions were usually local, social, Early and weak. and Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842). (1842). Worker political parties were ineffective Worker until the post-Civil War period. until Regional Specialization EAST Industrial EAST Industrial SOUTH Cotton & Slavery SOUTH Cotton WEST The Nation’s “Breadbasket” WEST The American Population Centers in 1820 American Population Centers in 1860 National Origin of Immigrants: 1820 - 1860 Why now? KnowNothing Party: “The Supreme Order of the Star-Spangled Banner” Changing Occupation Distributions: 1820 - 1860 ECONOMIC? ECONOMIC POLITICAL? SOCIAL? FUTURE PROBLEMS? ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2012 for the course HISTORY 102 taught by Professor Rotunda during the Fall '10 term at Rutgers.

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