PopulismandtheElectionof1896 - By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer By:...

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Unformatted text preview: By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer By: Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY The Silver Issue The “Crime of ’73” demonetization of silver (govt. stopped coining silver). Bland-Allison Act (1878) limited silver coinage to $2-$4 mil. per mo. (based on the 16:1 ratio of silver to gold). Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890) The US Treasury must purchase $4.5 mil. oz. of silver a month. Govt. deposited most silver in the US Treasury rather than circulation. Price Indexes for Consumer & Farm Products: 1865-1913 Products: Founder of the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry (1867) (1867) The Grange Movement Movement First organized in the 1870s in the First Midwest, the south, and Texas. Midwest, Set up cooperative associations. Social and educational components. Succeeded in lobbying for “Granger Succeeded Laws.” Laws Rapidly declined by the late 1870s. Supreme Court Decisions Decisions Munn vs. Illinois (1877) Wabash, St. Louis, & Pacific Wabash, Railroad Company vs. Illinois Railroad (1886) (1886) Gift Gift for the Grangers : The The Farmer Farmer Pays Pays The Farmers Alliances Alliances Begun in the late 1880s (Texas first Begun the Southern Alliance; then in the Southern then Midwest the Northern Alliance). Northern Built upon the ashes of the Grange. More political and less social than the More Grange. Grange. Ran candidates for office. Controlled 8 state legislatures & had 47 representatives in Congress during the representatives 1890s. 1890s. United We Stand, Divided In Weboth 1889 In We Fall the Northern and the Southern Alliances merged into one—the merged Farmers’ Alliance. Farmers’ The Populist (Peoples’) Party Party 1890 Bi-Election: 1890 So. Alliance wanted to So. gain control of the Democratic Party. gain No. Alliance ran 3rd Party candidates. No. 1892 800 met in St. Louis, MO majority were Alliance members. over 100 were African Americans. reps. of labor organizations & other reps. reformers (Grange, Greenback Party). reformers Platform of Lunacy Platform The Populist (Peoples’) Party Party Founded by James B. Weaver Founded by James B. Weaver and Tom Watson. Omaha, NE Convention in July, 1892. Got almost 1 million popular votes. Several Congressional seats won. James B. Weaver, James Presidential Candidate Presidential & James G. Field, VP 1. Omaha Platform of System of “sub-treasuries.” System “sub-treasuries.” 1892 1892 2. Abolition of the National Bank. 3. Direct election of Senators. 4. Govt. ownership of RRs, telephone & telegraph Govt. companies. companies. 5. Government-operated postal savings banks. 6. Restriction of undesirable immigration. 7. 8-hour work day for government employees. 8. Abolition of the Pinkerton detective agency. 9. Australian secret ballot. 10. Re-monitization of silver. 11. A single term for President & Vice President. Govt.-Owned Companies Companies 1892 Election 1892 Bi-Metallism Issue Bi-Metallism Causes of the 1893 Panic Panic Begun 10 days after Cleveland took office. 1. Several major corps. went bankrupt. Over 16,000 businesses disappeared. Triggered a stock market crash. Over-extended investments. 1. Bank failures followed causing a contraction of credit [nearly 500 banks closed]. 2. By 1895, unemployment reached 3 million. Americans cried out for relief, but the Govt. continued its laissez faire policies!! Here Lies Prosperity Here Written by a Farmer at the End of the 19c at When the banker says he's broke And the merchant’s up in smoke, And They forget that it's the farmer who feeds them all. It would put them to the test It If the farmer took a rest; If Then they'd know that it's the farmer feeds them all. Coxey’s Army, 1894 Coxey’s Jacob Coxey & his “Army of Jacob the Commonweal of Christ.” the March on Washington “hayseed socialists!” March Result of Election Returns Returns Populist vote increased by 40% in the bi-election year, 1894. Democratic party losses in the West were catastrophic! But, Republicans won control of the House. Gold / Silver Bug Campaign Pins Campaign William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925) (1860-1925) The “Great The William Jennings Bryan Bryan Revivalist style of oratory. Prairie avenger, Prairie mountain lion, Bryan, Bryan, Bryan, Bryan, Bryan, Gigantic troubadour, Gigantic speaking like a siege gun, Smashing Plymouth Smashing Rock with his boulders from the West. Bryant’s Bryant’s “Cross of Gold” “Cross Speechou shall not Speech Y You press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns; you shall not crucify mankind upon a mankind cross of gold! cross Bryan: The Farmers Friend Friend (The Mint Ratio) 18,000 miles of campaign “whistle stops.” Democr Democr atic atic Party Taken Over by the Agraria Agraria tariff reductions; income tax; stricter Platform n Left control of the trusts (esp. RRs); free silver. Mark Hanna: The “Front-Porch” Campaign Campaign William McKinley (1843(18431901) Mark Hanna to Candidate McKinley McKinley “A Giant Straddle”: Giant Suggestion for a McKinley Political Poster Poster The Seasoned Politician Politician vs. The The “Young” Newcome Newcome Joshua A. Levering: Prohibition Party Prohibition Into Which Box Will the Voter Voter of ’96 of Place His 1896 Election Results 1896 Why Did Bryan Loose? Loose? His focus on silver undermined efforts to build bridges to urban voters. He did not form alliances with other groups. McKinley’s campaign was well- organized and highly funded. Gold Triumphs Over Silver Silver 1900 Gold 1900 Gold Standard Act confirmed the nation’s nation’s commitment to commitment the gold standard. A victory for the victory forces of forces conservatism. The Wizard of Oz of by L. Frank Baum Baum 1964: Henry Littlefield’s “Thesis”? “Parable of the Parable Populists”? Slippers ? Populists”? Tornado ? Silver Tornado Silver Dorothy ? Dorothy Emerald City ? Emerald Toto ? Toto Oz ? Oz Kansas ? Kansas The Wizard ? The Wicked Witch of the East ? East Munchkins ? Munchkins Wicked Witch of the Wicked West ? Tin Woodsman ? Tin Scarecrow ? Scarecrow Flying Monkeys ? Flying Cowardly Lion ? Cowardly Yellow Winkies ? Yellow Yellow Brick Road ? Yellow Heyday of Western Populism Populism Why Did Populism Decline? Decline? 1. The economy experienced rapid change. 2. The era of small producers and The farmers was fading away. farmers 3. Race divided the Populist Party, Race especially in the South. especially 4. The Populists were not able to break existing party loyalties. 5. Most of their agenda was co-opted by the Democratic Party. But, Populism Still Lives! Lives! Al Gore (Dem) in 2000 But, Populism Still Lives! Lives! John Edwards (Dem) in John ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2012 for the course HISTORY 102 taught by Professor Rotunda during the Fall '10 term at Rutgers.

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