This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley HS
Chappaqua, NY The Silver Issue
The “Crime of ’73” demonetization of
silver (govt. stopped coining silver). Bland-Allison Act (1878) limited
silver coinage to $2-$4 mil. per mo.
(based on the 16:1 ratio of silver to
gold). Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890) The US Treasury must purchase
$4.5 mil. oz. of silver a month. Govt. deposited most silver in the
US Treasury rather than circulation. Price Indexes for
Consumer & Farm
Products: Founder of the National
Grange of the Patrons of
(1867) The Grange
Movement First organized in the 1870s in the
First Midwest, the south, and Texas.
Midwest, Set up cooperative associations. Social and educational components. Succeeded in lobbying for “Granger
Laws Rapidly declined by the late 1870s. Supreme Court
Decisions Munn vs. Illinois (1877) Wabash, St. Louis, & Pacific
Wabash, Railroad Company vs. Illinois
Pays The Farmers
Alliances Begun in the late 1880s (Texas first Begun the Southern Alliance; then in the
Midwest the Northern Alliance).
Northern Built upon the ashes of the Grange. More political and less social than the
Grange. Ran candidates for office. Controlled 8 state legislatures & had 47 representatives in Congress during the
Divided In Weboth
In We Fall
the Northern and
merged into one—the
Farmers’ The Populist (Peoples’)
So. Alliance wanted to
gain control of the Democratic Party.
No. Alliance ran 3rd Party candidates.
No. 1892 800 met in St. Louis, MO majority were Alliance members.
over 100 were African Americans.
reps. of labor organizations & other
reformers (Grange, Greenback Party).
reformers Platform of Lunacy
Platform The Populist (Peoples’)
Founded by James B. Weaver Founded by James B. Weaver and Tom Watson. Omaha, NE Convention in July, 1892. Got almost 1 million popular votes. Several Congressional seats won. James B. Weaver,
James G. Field, VP 1. Omaha Platform of
System of “sub-treasuries.”
1892 2. Abolition of the National Bank. 3. Direct election of Senators. 4. Govt. ownership of RRs, telephone & telegraph
companies. 5. Government-operated postal savings banks. 6. Restriction of undesirable immigration. 7. 8-hour work day for government employees. 8. Abolition of the Pinkerton detective agency. 9. Australian secret ballot. 10. Re-monitization of silver.
11. A single term for President & Vice President. Govt.-Owned
Companies 1892 Election
1892 Bi-Metallism Issue
Bi-Metallism Causes of the 1893
Begun 10 days after Cleveland took office.
1. Several major corps. went bankrupt. Over 16,000 businesses disappeared. Triggered a stock market crash. Over-extended investments.
1. Bank failures followed causing a contraction of credit [nearly 500 banks closed].
2. By 1895, unemployment reached 3 million. Americans cried out for relief, but the Govt. continued its laissez faire policies!! Here Lies Prosperity
Here Written by a Farmer
at the End of the 19c
When the banker says he's broke
And the merchant’s up in smoke,
They forget that it's the farmer
who feeds them all.
It would put them to the test
If the farmer took a rest;
Then they'd know that it's the farmer
feeds them all. Coxey’s Army, 1894
Coxey’s Jacob Coxey & his “Army of
Jacob the Commonweal of Christ.”
the March on Washington “hayseed socialists!”
March Result of Election
Returns Populist vote increased by
40% in the
1894. Democratic party losses in
the West were
catastrophic! But, Republicans won control of
the House. Gold / Silver Bug
Campaign William Jennings Bryan
(1860-1925) The “Great
The William Jennings
Bryan Revivalist style of oratory. Prairie avenger,
Bryan, Bryan, Bryan,
speaking like a siege
with his boulders
from the West. Bryant’s
“Cross of Gold”
Speechou shall not
press down upon
the brow of labor
this crown of
thorns; you shall
mankind upon a
cross of gold!
cross Bryan: The Farmers
(The Mint Ratio) 18,000 miles of campaign “whistle stops.” Democr
Agraria tariff reductions; income tax; stricter
Platform n Left control of the trusts (esp. RRs); free silver. Mark Hanna:
Campaign William McKinley (1843(18431901) Mark Hanna to
McKinley “A Giant Straddle”:
Suggestion for a
Newcome Joshua A. Levering:
His 1896 Election Results
1896 Why Did Bryan
Loose? His focus on silver undermined efforts to build bridges to urban
voters. He did not form alliances with other groups. McKinley’s campaign was well- organized and highly funded. Gold Triumphs Over
Silver 1900 Gold
Gold Standard Act confirmed the nation’s
the gold standard. A victory for the
victory forces of
conservatism. The Wizard
Baum 1964: Henry
“Thesis”? “Parable of the
Populists”? Slippers ?
Silver Dorothy ?
Dorothy Emerald City ?
Emerald Toto ?
Toto Oz ?
Oz Kansas ?
Kansas The Wizard ?
The Wicked Witch of the
East Munchkins ?
Munchkins Wicked Witch of the
West ? Tin Woodsman ?
Tin Scarecrow ?
Scarecrow Flying Monkeys ?
Flying Cowardly Lion ?
Cowardly Yellow Winkies ?
Yellow Yellow Brick Road ?
Yellow Heyday of Western
Populism Why Did Populism
1. The economy experienced rapid change.
2. The era of small producers and
The farmers was fading away.
3. Race divided the Populist Party,
Race especially in the South.
4. The Populists were not able to break existing party loyalties.
5. Most of their agenda was co-opted by the Democratic Party. But, Populism Still
Lives! Al Gore (Dem) in 2000 But, Populism Still
Lives! John Edwards (Dem) in
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 02/17/2012 for the course HISTORY 102 taught by Professor Rotunda during the Fall '10 term at Rutgers.
- Fall '10