TheVietnamWar - The Vietnam War 1954 - 1975 Ms. Susan M....

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Unformatted text preview: The Vietnam War 1954 - 1975 Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY Background to the War France controlled “Indochina” since France the late 19th century the Japan took control during World Japan War II War With U.S. aid, France attempted With re-colonization in the postwar period re-colonization Background to the War The French lost control to The Ho Chi Minh’s Viet Minh Viet forces in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu Phu President Eisenhower declined to President intervene on behalf of France. intervene Background to the War International Conference at Geneva Vietnam was divided at 17 th parallel parallel O Ho Chi Minh’s nationalist forces controlled the North forces O Ngo Dinh Diem, a Frencheducated, Roman Catholic educated, claimed control of the South South Background to the War A date was set for democratic date elections to reunify Vietnam elections Diem backed out of the elections, Diem leading to military conflict between North and South between U.S. Military Involvement Begins Repressive dictatorial rule by Diem Diem’s family holds all power Wealth is hoarded by the elite Buddhist majority persecuted Torture, lack of political freedom prevail The U.S. aided Diem’s government Ike sent financial and military aid 675 U.S. Army advisors sent by 1960. Early Protests of Diem’s Government Self-Emolation by a Buddhist Monk U.S. Military Involvement Begins Kennedy elected 1960 Increases military “advisors” to Increases 16,000 16,000 1963: JFK supports a Vietnamese 1963: military coup d’etat – Diem and his brother are murdered (Nov. 2) (Nov. Kennedy was assassinated just Kennedy weeks later (Nov. 22) (Nov. Johnson Sends Ground Forces Remembers Truman’s “loss” Remembers of China Domino Theory revived revived I’m not going to be I’m the president who saw Southeast Asia go the way China went. went. Johnson Sends Ground Forces Advised to rout the communists Advised by Secretary of Defense, Robert S. McNamara S. Tonkin Gulf Incident 1964 Tonkin (acc. to Johnson, the attacks were (acc. unprovoked) unprovoked) Tonkin Gulf Resolution “The Blank Check” * The U.S. Troop Deployments in Vietnam 6 0 0 ,0 0 0 5 0 0 ,0 0 0 4 0 0 ,0 0 0 U. S. Tr oop s 3 0 0 ,0 0 0 2 0 0 ,0 0 0 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 1961 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 0 The Ground War 1965-1968 No territorial goals Body counts on TV every night Body (first “living room” war) “living Viet Cong supplies over the Viet Ho Chi Minh Trail Ho The Air War 1965-1968 1965: Sustained bombing of North Vietnam Operation Rolling Thunder (March 2, 1965) Operation (March 1966-68: Ongoing bombing of Hanoi 1966-68: nonstop for 3 years! Esp. targets the Ho Chi Minh Trail. Ho Downed Pilots: P.O.W.s Carpet Bombing – napalm Carpet napalm The Air War: A Napalm Attack Who Is the Enemy? Vietcong: Farmers by day; guerillas at Farmers night. night. Very patient people willing to Very accept many casualties. accept The US grossly underestimated The their resolve and their resourcefulness. resourcefulness. The guerilla wins if he does not lose, The the conventional army loses if it does not win. -- Mao Zedong not Mao Who Is the Enemy? The Ground War 1965-1968 General Westmoreland, late 1967: We can see the We “light at the end of the tunnel.” The Tet Offensive, January 1968 N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong attack N. South simultaneously (67,000 attack 100 cities, bases, and the US embassy in Saigon) in Take every major southern city U.S. + ARVN beat back the offensive Viet Cong destroyed N. Vietnamese army debilitated BUT…it’s seen as an American defeat BUT…it’s by the media by The Tet Offensive, January 1968 Impact of the Tet Offensive Domestic U.S. Reaction: Domestic Disbelief, Anger, Distrust of Johnson Administration Johnson Hey, Hey LBJ! How Hey, many kids did you kill today? Johnson’s popularity dropped in 1968 from 48% to 36%. 48% Impact of the Vietnam War Johnson announces (March, 1968): …I shall not seek, shall and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your President. President. American Morale Begins to Dip Disproportionate representation of Disproportionate poor people and minorities. poor Severe racial problems. Major drug problems. Officers in combat 6 mo.; in rear mo.; 6 mo. Enlisted men in combat for 12 mo. men Are We Becoming the Enemy? Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry Lt. William Calley, Platoon Leader Mylai Massacre, 1968 200-500 unarmed villagers Anti-War Demonstrations Columbia University 1967 Hell no, we won’t go! Hell Anti-War Demonstrations Student Protestors Student at Univ. of CA in Berkeley, 1968 in Democratic Convention in Chicago, 1968 Chicago, “Hanoi Jane” Jane Fonda: Traitor? Anti-War Demonstrations 4 students students shot dead. shot 11 students 11 wounded wounded Jackson State University Kent State University May 4, 1970 May 10, 1970 2 dead; 12 dead; wounded wounded Nixon on Vietnam Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an Nixon’s end to the war: Peace with Honor Peace Appealed to the great Appealed “Silent Majority” “Silent Vietnamization Expansion of the Expansion conflict The “Secret War” Cambodia Laos Agent Orange (chemical defoliant) “Pentagon Papers,” 1971 Former defense analyst Daniel Ellsberg Former Daniel leaked govt. docs. regarding war efforts leaked during Johnson’s administration to the New York Times. New Docs. Govt. misled Congress & Amer. People regarding its intentions in Vietnam during mid-1960s. during Primary reason for fighting not to Primary eliminate communism, but to avoid humiliating defeat. humiliating New York Times v. United States (1971) * The Ceasefire, 1973 Peace is at hand Kissinger, 1972 1973: Ceasefire signed between North Vietnam attacks South Most Massive U.S. bombing commences U.S., South Vietnam, & North Vietnam Peace with honor (President Nixon) Peace Negotiations Dr. Henry Kissinger & Le Duc Tho Le US & US Vietnamese argue for 5 months over the size of the size conference table! The Ceasefire, 1973 Conditions: 1. U.S. to remove all troops 2. North Vietnam could leave troops North already in S.V. already 3. North Vietnam would resume war 4. No provision for POWs or MIAs Last American troops left South Last Vietnam on March 29, 1973 Vietnam 1975: North Vietnam defeats South 1975: Vietnam Vietnam Saigon renamed Ho Chi Minh City Saigon Ho The Fall of Saigon South Vietnamese South Attempt to Flee the Country Attempt The Fall of Saigon April 30, 1975 America Abandons Its Embassy The Fall of Saigon North Vietnamese North at the Presidential Palace at A United Vietnam Formerly Saigon Formerly The Costs 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 3,000,000 Vietnamese killed 58,000 Americans killed; 300,000 58,000 wounded wounded Under-funding of Great Society Under-funding programs programs $150,000,000,000 in U.S. spending U.S. morale, self-confidence, trust U.S. of government, decimated of The Impact 26th Amendment: 18-year-olds vote Nixon abolished the draft all-volunteer army all-volunteer War Powers Act, 1973 ‫٭‬ War 1973 President must notify Congress within 48 President hours of deploying military force hours President must withdraw forces unless he President gains Congressional approval within 90 days days Disregard for Veterans seen as Disregard “baby killers” “baby POW/MIA issue lingered Some American POWs Returned from the “Hanoi Hilton” Senator John McCain (R-AZ) 2,583 American POWs / MIAs POWs still unaccounted for today. still And And in the End…. Ho Chi Minh: If we have to fight, we will fight. You will kill ten of our men and we will kill one of yours, and in the end it will be you who tires of it. you Lessons for Future American Presidents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Wars must be of short duration. Wars must yield few American Wars casualties. casualties. Restrict media access to battlefields. Develop and maintain Congressional Develop and public support. and Set clear, winnable goals. Set deadline for troop withdrawals. The Vietnam Memorial, Washington, D.C. Memorial to US Servicemen in Vietnam Memorial to US Nurses in Vietnam Nurses 58,000 58,000 President Clinton formally recognized Vietnam on July 11, 1995 Where Were You in the War, Daddy? This war haunts us still! AND TODAY….. The “Light” at the End of This Tunnel? 2003 to ?: “Operation Iraqi Freedom” 2003 2400+ American dead and counting…? Another Vietnam? OR A transformation of the Middle East? Only time & history can tell! Bibliography Nash, Gary, et al. The American Nash, People, Harper & Row, 1986 Harper Compton’s Encyclopedia 2000 Compton’s Deluxe, Broderbund, 1999. Deluxe, The Americans, McDougal Littell, The 1998 1998 A myriad of web sites on the myriad internet internet ...
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