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Lect_4_Thermochem - 2011

Lect_4_Thermochem - 2011 - UNENE Chemistry Primer UNENE...

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UNENE Chemistry Primer UNENE Chemistry Primer Lecture 4: Thermochemistry Derek Lister and William Cook Derek Lister and William Cook University of New Brunswick University of New Brunswick Course Textbook: Chemistry, The Central Science , 10th edition, Pearson Education Inc., 2006 Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay Jr. and Bruce E. Bursten
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Energy The ability to do work or transfer heat. Work: Energy used to cause an object that has mass to move. Heat: Energy used to cause the temperature of an object to rise.
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Potential Energy Energy an object possesses by virtue of its position or chemical composition.
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Kinetic Energy Energy an object possesses by virtue of its motion. KE = 1 2 mv 2
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Units of Energy The SI unit of energy is the Joule (J) . An older, non-SI unit is still in widespread use: The calorie (cal) . 1 cal = 4.184 J
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System and Surroundings The system includes the molecules we want to study (here, the hydrogen and oxygen molecules). The surroundings are everything else (here, the cylinder and piston).
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Work Energy used to move an object over some distance. w = F d , where w is work, F is the force, and d is the distance over which the force is exerted.
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Heat Energy can also be transferred as heat. Heat flows from warmer objects to cooler objects.
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Transferal of Energy a) The potential energy of this ball of clay is increased when it is moved from the ground to the top of the wall.
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Transferal of Energy a) The potential energy of this ball of clay is increased when it is moved from the ground to the top of the wall. b) As the ball falls, its potential energy is converted to kinetic energy.
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Transferal of Energy a) The potential energy of this ball of clay is increased when it is moved from the ground to the top of the wall. b) As the ball falls, its potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. c) When it hits the ground, its kinetic energy falls to zero (since it is no longer moving); some of the energy does work on the ball and all is eventually dissipated as heat.
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First Law of Thermodynamics Energy is neither created nor destroyed.
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