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Lecture Notes 3

Lecture Notes 3 - Lecture Notes 3 Biochemistry Biology A...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture Notes 3: Biochemistry Biology A Eaton Rapids High School K.Coppins I. Basics of Chemistry A. The Atom Smallest unit of any element ______________________________ positive nucleus 2. Made of a __________________ electrons surrounded by a cloud of negative particles called ____________. 3. All elements are listed on the Periodic Table _____________. 1. I. Basics of Chemistry A. The Atom 4. Elements in the body: Oxygen (65%) Carbon (18%) Hydrogen (10%) Nitrogen (3%) Calcium (1.5%) Phosphorus (1.0%) Potassium (0.35%) Sulfur (0.25%) Sodium (0.15%) Magnesium (0.05%) Copper, Zinc, Selenium, Molybdenum, Fluorine, Chlorine, Iodine, Manganese, Cobalt, Iron (0.70%) Lithium, Strontium, Aluminum, Silicon, Lead, Vanadium, Arsenic, Bromine (trace amounts) Reference: H. A. Harper, V. W. Rodwell, P. A. Mayes, Review of Physiological Chemistry, 16th ed., Lange Medical Publications, Los Altos, California 1977. I. Basics of Chemistry B. Molecules 1. When two or more atoms join molecule together, they form a ___________. 2. These are called _______________, chemical bonds and are based on interactions between electrons the _________. 3. If a bond joins different elements, the compound new substance is a __________. I. Basics of Chemistry C. Types of Bonds 1. _____________ Ionic bonds a. Electrons move from one atom to the other. b. Atoms become positively or negatively charged; called ____. ions c. Charges attract or repel. d. Good for __________________. conducting electricity I. Basics of Chemistry C. Types of Bonds 2. _______________ Covalent bonds a. Electrons are shared between two atoms. b. Atoms must remain together c. Bonds are flexible large structures d. Good for ________________. I. Basics of Chemistry C. Types of Bonds 3. _______________ Hydrogen bonds a. Hydrogen holds electrons weakly b. Has a slightly positive charge, attracted to anything negative. c. Creates weak bonds that help hold structures but can be broken easily. d. Examples: _________________ DNA, hair, water I. Basics of Chemistry D. Molecules and Energy 1. Energy is stored in the bonds between atoms. Energy is required to make or break ______________ bonds. 2. The amount of energy varies with the type of bond. Some bonds (hydrogen) are easily broken while others (triple covalent) are very hard. II. Water Chemistry A. ________ is the most abundant Water chemical in the body. B. Water has many characteristics that make it vital to our bodies. 1. _____—water is a very small Size molecule, so it moves fast and can squeeze into tiny crevasses between other molecules. II. Water Chemistry B. Water has many characteristics that make it vital to our bodies. 2. _________­­Hydrogen Polarity has a slightly positive charge while oxygen has a slightly negative charge. This makes it easy for water to pry apart other charged molecules, dissolving them. Called a Universal Solvent __________________. II. Water Chemistry B. Water has many characteristics that make it vital to our bodies. 3. _______________­­Due to polarity, Crystal structure water forms a crystal structure that is less dense than liquid water. II. Water Chemistry B. Water has many characteristics that make it vital to our bodies. 4. _____________­­water absorbs and Heat capacity releases heat energy slowly, and can hold a great deal of heat energy. This helps organisms maintain their body temperature in the safe range. II. Water Chemistry B. Water has many characteristics that make it vital to our bodies. 5. __________________­­ Cohesion & Polarity allows water to Adhesion stick to itself (cohesion) and to any charged material (adhesion). Water can glue materials together. II. Water Chemistry B. Water has many characteristics that make it vital to our bodies. 6. _______­­Water Buffer can act as either an acid or a base, maintaining a stable pH in our bodies. III. Macromolecules A. What are they? Very large molecules that make __________________________________ most of the structure of the body 1. ______________________________________ _ monomers 2. Made of smaller pieces called __________ that can be assembled like legos to form a variety of structures. A polymer large chain of monomers is called a _________. III. Macromolecules B. Carbohydrates 1. Monomer: ____________________ monosaccharide (sugar) 2. Polymer: _____________________ polysaccharide (starch) rings of carbon with 3. Structure:______________________ oxygen and hydrogen attached; CH2O ________________________________ 4. Uses: ___________________ energy, plant structure 5. Examples: ________________ sucrose, cellullose Examples of Carbohydrates III. Macromolecules C. Lipids 1. Monomer: __________ fatty acid 2. Polymer: ___________ lipid or fat 3 long chains of carbon 3. Structure:______________________ hydrogen on a glycerol molecule ________________________________ 4. Uses: ________________________ energy, structure, warmth 5. Examples: ____________________ fat, oil, cholesterol Examples of Lipids III. Macromolecules D. Protein 1. Monomer: _______________ amino acid (20) 2. Polymer: _____________________ protein or polypeptide 3. Structure:______________________ central carbon atom with ________________________________ hydrogen, amine, carboxyl, & R groups 4. Uses: ________________________ structure, emergency energy 5. Examples: ____________________ skin, insulin, enzymes Examples of Proteins III. Macromolecules E. Nucleic Acids 1. Monomer: _______________ nucleotide (5) 2. Polymer: ___________ nucleic acid 5­carbon sugar attached 3. Structure:______________________ to nitrogen base and phosphate group ________________________________ 4. Uses: ___________________ stores genetic code 5. Examples: _______________ DNA and RNA Examples of Nucleic Acids IV. ATP A. ATP stands for _____________________ adenosine triphosphate B. Cells use ATP as a rechargeable battery __________________ 3 C. Made of adenine with ___ phosphates D. Lots of energy is stored in the bond the second and third phosphates between _____________________________ E. When this bond is broken, tremendous energy is released. F. The pieces are then reassembled, storing Examples of ATP V. Enzymes A. Special proteins that speed chemical reactions 1. Chemical reactions require a certain activation energy _______________ to get started. 2. Enzymes decrease this energy, making reactions occur faster. V. Enzymes B. Lock­and­Key Model 1. Enzymes are not used up by the reaction, but each can only work on one enzyme specificity reaction (________________). 2. This is called the lock­and­key model key of enzymes. An enzyme is like a _____ lock which can open exactly one _____. If you want to “unlock” another reaction, you need a different enzyme. V. Enzymes V. Enzymes C. Factors which affect enzymes 1. _____________­­enzymes, like all Temperature proteins, change shape when exposed to heat or cold. Each has an optimal temperature range. 2. ____­­all enzymes have an optimal pH range of pH. Example: stomach 3. _____________­­having more Concentration enzymes makes the reaction faster. Images used in this presentation were obtained from: Atom: PowerPoint clipart Water molecule and Water attraction: stainsfile.info/StainsFile/jindex.html Bohr water molecule: ghs.gresham.k12.or.us Spoon on nose: statweb.calpoly.edu pH scale: bcn.boulder.co.us Glucose and Cellulose: www.greenspirit.org.uk Sucrose: encarta.msn.com Images, continued Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, cis and trans fat, and lipid molecule: biology.clc.uc.edu Generic Amino acid: ffden­2.phys.uaf.edu Peptide bond: www.rothamsted.bbsrc.ac.uk Nucleotide: faculty.uca.edu DNA helix: www.biologycorner.com ATP: textbookofbacteriology.net Activation energy: faculty.clintocc.suny.edu Enzyme lock­and­key: www.celltech.com ...
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