Lecture11_NABPty2012 (1)

This procedure has been automated in machines that

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Unformatted text preview: bases in a month. GC C G C A T G T C GT A A C TT 5’ primer 3’ synthesis GCCGCAT GT C GT AACT T CGGCGT ACAGCAT T GAA 5’ template 3’ Alternative Sequencing Paradigms Massively parallel sequencing Nanopore sequencing Sequencing by hybridization Real-time sequencingby-synthesis What can a sequencer do today? In 8 days… (Illumina HiSeq 2000) “Paired end” 100 bp reads >2 billion read-pairs >400 gigabases (Gb) of total output 1 in 1,000 error rate for most base-calls Initial draft of human genome based on 23 Gb Next Generation Biology Erez Lieberman-Aiden, Lauren Solomon The human (and other) genomeswhat have we learned? Number of human genes is fewer than expected (but alternative splicing increases that number). Presesnt estimate is ~30,000. Gene arrangement is often conserved between species (synteny). Polymorphisms, differences between individuals in the same species, are very frequent (~1 change per 1000 nucleotides). The number of gene families is similar in flies and humans. Most human genes have orthologs in other species-even down to yeast. This fact is important for studying gene function. There are many paralogs: related genes in the same genome due to gene duplication. (Homologs are genes related by descent from a common ancestor, an example of divergent evolution). 27 www.wellcome.ac.uk/en/genome/genesandbody...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2012 for the course CHEM 212 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '10 term at Rutgers.

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