Lipids-b - The Biosynthesis of membrane lipids and steroids Major questions in membrane biosynthesis 1 How is flip-flop accomplished in vivo 2 How

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The Biosynthesis of membrane lipids and steroids
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QuickTimeª and a GIF decompressor are needed to see this picture. Major questions in membrane biosynthesis 1. How is flip-flop accomplished in vivo ? 2. How are the different phospholipid constitutions of the different membranes maintained? (how does stuff know where to go)?
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Phospholipids and Glycolipids may have a glycerol or sphingosine skeleton
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Glycerophospholipid synthesis starts with phosphatidic acid or diacylglycerol
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The synthesis of phospholipids requires an activated intermediate For the glycerophospholipids, a diaclyglyceride is combined with an alcohol. Either species may be activated, depending on the source of the reactants. Examples where the alcohol is activated: Phosphatidylethanolamine Phosphatidylcholine Examples where the diacylglyceride is activated: phosphatidylglycerol phosphatidylinositol
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Figure 25-78 The biosynthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine . Page 970 Activation of the alcohol by phosphorylation and cytidylylation phosphorylation of alcohol addition of CMP Notes: Liver can also convert phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine by adding 3 methyl groups with S-adenosylmethionine as the methyl donor.
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Figure 25-79 Phosphatidylserine synthesis . Page 971 Phosphatidylserine is formed from phosphatidylethanolamine by an exchange of the polar head group
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Figure 25-80 The biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylglycerol. Page 972 Activation of the diacylglyceride in the formation of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylglycerol
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Cardiolipin is synthesized from two molecules of phosphatidylglycerol
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Glycerol ether phospholipids contain an ether linkage at the glycerol C1 Plasmologens -hydrocarbon linked to C1 by a vinyl ether linkage -O-CH=CH-R Alkylacylglycerophospholipids -alkyl substituent attached to C1 by ether linkage -O-R
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The biosynthesis of ethanolamine plasmalogen via a pathway in which 1-alkyl-2-acyl- sn- glycerolphosphoethanolamine is an intermediate . Page 973 Plasmologens and other ether phospholipids are synthesized from DHAP 1. Exchange of acyl group for an alcohol. 2. Reduction of ketone to alcohol. 3. acylation at C2 of glycerol. 4. dephosphorylation at glycerol C3. 5. reaction with CDP-ethanolamine. 6.
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2012 for the course CHEM 212 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '10 term at Rutgers.

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Lipids-b - The Biosynthesis of membrane lipids and steroids Major questions in membrane biosynthesis 1 How is flip-flop accomplished in vivo 2 How

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