Signal_transduction08

Signal_transduction08 - Signal Transduction: At the core of...

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Signal Transduction: At the core of all complex developmental pathways and adaptations to environmental conditions QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
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Basic Principles of Signal Transduction What is signal transduction? “Signal transduction” is a term used to describe the process by which information in the form of chemical stimuli or a coligative property brings about a change in the state or activity of its receptor, and by so doing affects, indirectly or directly, the activities of one or more cellular macromolecules. What cellular signal transduction systems do: Signal transduction systems allow information to control cellular processes such as gene expression, growth, responses to stress and other “developmental” changes or “adaptations”. Some common features of signalling systems: Second messengers Integration of different information temporal regulation reversible covalent modification
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Two component signal transduction systems of bacteria, Archaea, fungi, and plants Paradigm: Nitrogen Regulation in E. coli
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Bacterial Two-component systems
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Catalytic activities and structure of two component systems
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Trans-intramolecular autophosphorylation mechanism and asymmetry of PII signaling in the “regulated phosphatase activity” Each subunit can only phosphorylate it’s opposing subunit. The two C-terminal domains of NRII have distinct functions in stimulating NRI~P dephosphorylation.
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QuickTimeª and a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Structure of NRII-CTD and hypothesis for PII binding
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QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTimeª and a ompressed) decompressor ded to see this picture. QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. CheY Spo0F Structure of the Receiver Domain of CheY and Spo0F
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Two component systems control stress responses, development, and metabolism Most histidine kinases are transmembrane proteins with a periplasmic domain that may participate in sensation.
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Phosphorelay systems form a distinct class of two-component systems
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Phosphorelay system controlling B. subtilis development allows for integration of a variety of information
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Activity of RapA phosphatase that dephopshorylates Spo0F~P is controled by a timing mechanims that involves export and import of a peptide phosphatase inhibitor
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Two component systems work with map kinase cascades in fungi
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Eukaryotic two-component systems are of the phosphorelay variety
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Cytokinin receptors of plants are part of a phosphorelay system
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Classical Example of a Model System: Bacterial Chemotaxis- Bacteria swim away from a repellant (as depicted) or towards an attractant.
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2012 for the course CHEM 212 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '10 term at Rutgers.

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Signal_transduction08 - Signal Transduction: At the core of...

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