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Immunology_Lecture_11 - Immunology Lecture(Spring 2011 1...

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Immunology Lecture (Spring 2011) 1. Slides 2-6: Innate vs. Adaptive a. Immune system is a combination of cells and molecules that provide defense against infection b. 3 levels of defense i.physical barrier ( skin, mucosa, enzymes) ii.innate immune system iii. adaptive immune system c. Roles of innate immune system i. Rapidly contain infection during interim before Adaptive response 1. 3-5 days before adaptive response ii.Regulate Adaptive response 1. Assist in identifying origin of the antigen a. Signal the presence of infection b. Can identify Self vs. Non-self 2. Assist in induction of adaptive immune response iii.2 most important cellular responses by the innate immune system 1. Inflammation a. Phagocytic WBC recruited to kill microbial pathogens 2. Anti-Viral a. Initiated by dendritic cells and Natural Killer cells d. Defect in innate system i.Chronic granulomatous disease 1. Impaired killing of intracellular microbe by macrophage causes a persistent cell mediated immune response a. Granuloma: focal area of transformed macrophages surrounded by lymphocytes and plasma cells b. Eg. TB, and Sarcoidosis (chronic multisystem inflammatory disorder) e. Adaptive immune system i. Diversity: able to identify almost any antigen 1. 10 14 antibody receptors; 10 18 T cell antigen receptors 2. Random, somatically generated receptors. Not passed on to progeny, but must be reinvented each generation. ii.Lymphocytes are not inherently specific for microbial pathogens. They are able to recognize a variety of foreign and self antigens. 1. React to Self (Autoimmune disorders) 2. React to Environment (Allergy)
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2. Slide 7: Components of the Immune System a. Large Granular Lymphocyte / Natural killer cell i.Account for 10-15% of peripheral blood lymphocytes. ii.Recognizes malignant cells and viral infected cells without requiring MHC marker. Can also kill target cells covered with antibody (This is called Antibody Dependent Cell-mediated Cytotoxicity, ADCC). b. Complement synthesis occurs in liver 3. Slide 9: Lymphoid tissue a. Peripheral Lymph Tissue i.Concentrates antigens, antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes in one place. This optimizes their interactions and facilitates the development of the adaptive immune response. b. Spleen: major site for the adaptive immune response to blood borne antigens. i. Splenectomy increases the risk for infection by encapsulated bacteria by decreasing the synthesis of B lymphocyte antibodies that act as opsonins. Eg. Strep pneumoniae, H. influenza, N. meningitides. Therefore, people with a splenectomy require immunization with Pneumovax, Hib, and Meningitis vaccines . c. Lymph nodes: major site for immune response to tissue and lymph borne antigens. i.Lymphocytes enter the blood
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Immunology_Lecture_11 - Immunology Lecture(Spring 2011 1...

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