Overview_of_the_Abdominal_Cavity_and_Viscera

Overview_of_the_Abdominal_Cavity_and_Viscera - Overview of...

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Overview of the Abdominal Cavity and Viscera The abdominal cavity is located between the thoracic (respiratory) diaphragm and the pelvic inlet. It is important to note that it extends superiorly to the level of the 5 th rib. Its surface anatomy is divided into 4 quadrants (RUQ, RLQ, LUQ, LLQ), or 9 regions. The contents of the 4 quadrants are: The 9 regions are created by 4 planes: 2 horizontal planes at the subcostal line and transtubercular line (iliac tubercles at the level of L5); and 2 vertical planes at the midclavicular lines. The 9 regions are: left and right hypochondriac; left and right lumbar; left and right iliac; and epigastric, umbilical, and hypogastric. The clinically important structures or events in the 9 regions are: right hypochondriac: liver and gall bladder epigastric: pain from heartburn, ulcer left hypochondriac: spleen tenderness right lumbar (flank): ascending colon, kidney umbilical: visceral pain often refers here left lumbar (flank): descending colon, kidney right inguinal: appendix hypogastric (pubic, suprapubic): bladder and rectum left inguinal: gas pain Right Upper Quadrant rt. lobe of liver, gallbladder, pylorus, the first three parts of the duodenum, head of the pancreas, rt. suprarenal (adrenal) gland, rt. kidney, rt. colic (hepatic) flexure, sup. part of ascending colon, rt. half of transverse colon Left Upper Quadrant lt. lobe of liver, spleen, most of stomach, jejunum and proximal ileum, body and tail of pancreas, lt. suprarenal (adrenal) gland, lt. kidney, lt. colic (splenic) flexure, sup. part of descending colon, lt. half of transverse colon Right Lower Quadrant cecum, appendix, most of ileum, inf. part of ascending colon, rt. ovary, rt. uterine tube, rt. ureter, rt. spermatic cord Left Lower Quadrant sigmoid colon, inf. part of descending colon, lt. ovary, lt. uterine tube, lt. ureter, lt. spermatic cord
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There is also an important “transpyloric plane” interconnecting the tips of the left and right 8 th or 9 th costal cartilages at the level of L1. This landmark is identified by the intersection of the lateral margin of the rectus abdominis muscle (linea semilunaris) with the 9 th costal cartilage. Deep to the transpyloric plane are the: 1) pylorus of the stomach; 2) duodenojejunal junction; 3) neck of the pancreas; and 4) hilum of the left kidney. The gallbladder is located at the junction of the linea semilunaris with the tip of the right 9 th costal cartilage. McBurney’s point is another important surface landmark located 1/3 rd of the way from the ASIS to the umbilicus in the RLQ. It identifies the location of the attachment of the vermiform appendix to the cecum. The important dermatome on the anterior abdominal wall is T10 at the level of the umbilicus. The layers of the abdominal wall vary according to location.
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Overview_of_the_Abdominal_Cavity_and_Viscera - Overview of...

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