Learning Issue: Infant and children abdominal exam-MH Inspection: Inspect abdomen, noting its shape, contour, and movement with respiration. Note any fullness. Abdominal and chest movements should be synchronous, with a slight bulge of the abdomen at the beginning of respiration. Note whether the abdomen above the level of the chest or is scaphoid. Note any pulsations over the abdomen, which are common in newborns and infants. Distended veins are not. Inspect the umbilical cord in newborns, two arteries and one vein should be present. Umbilical stump should be dry and odorless. Inspect it for discharge, redness, induration, and skin warmth. Note any protrusion through the umbilicus or rectus abdominis muscles when infant strains. If infant is vomiting frequently, use tangential lighting and observe the abdomen at eye level for peristaltic waves. Auscultation and Persussion: The procedures of auscultation and percussion do not differ from those of an adult. Bowel sounds may be heard in the chest, bruits and venous hums should not be heard. The
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