Menopause - Learning Issue Menopause Name MH Menopause is a...

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Learning Issue: Menopause Name: MH Definition Menopause is a universal and irreversible part of the overall aging process involving a woman's reproductive system, after which she no longer menstruates Perimenopause refers to the time before menopause when vasomotor symptoms and irregular menses often commence. Perimenopause can start 5- 10 years or more before menopause. Menopause, by definition, begins 12 months after the final menses and is characterized by a continuation of vasomotor symptoms and by urogenital symptoms such as vaginal dryness and dyspareunia. Risk Factors Factors associated with an earlier age of menopause Current cigarette smoking Earlier onset (1.5 years) Previous abdominal hysterectomy Body weight: thinner women experience a slightly earlier menopause living at high altitudes Undernourished women and vegetarians Pathophysiology Menopause results from loss of ovarian sensitivity to gonadotropin stimulation, which is directly related to follicular decline and dysfunction. The oocytes in the ovaries undergo atresia throughout a woman's life cycle, and both the quantity and quality of follicles undergo a critical decline approximately 20-25 years after menarche. Thus, the variable menstrual cycle length during perimenopause can be due to anovulation or to irregular maturation of follicles. Hormonal fluctuation may not be responsible for all
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