Alzheimer.docx

Alzheimer.docx - Learning Issue: Alzheimers Dementia Name:...

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Learning Issue: Alzheimer’s Dementia Name: Alyssa Crozier General Info Dementia: progressive impairment of cognitive functions occurring in clear consciousness (absence of delirium) Difficulty with memory, attention, thinking, and comprehension Also affect mood, personality, judgment, and social behavior There are several different kinds of dementia (Alzheimer’s, vascular, head trauma, alcohol related, Huntington’s, Parkinson’s, Pick’s, Lewy body, Normal pressure hydrocephalus, HIV, syphilis) – all have common elements that cause impaired social and occupational functioning 15% of people with dementia have reversible illness (caused by hypothyroidism, nutritional deficiencies, or depression) Most cases can identify an underlying cause Diagnosed clinically Etiology Most common cause of individuals older than 65 years old is Alzheimer’s disease Cause unknown Genetic – family history (40% of patients have family history) – linked to chromosomes 1, 14, and 21 Abnormality in the regulation of membrane phospholipid metabolism – membranes are less fluid (more rigid) Aluminum toxicity Pathophysiology Amyloid deposits – neuropathology – form plaques in the brain gene for amyloid precursor protein: on long arm of 21 Classic gross neuroanatomical observation: diffuse atrophy, flattened cortical sulci, enlarged ventricles Classic microscopic findings: senile plaques (amyloid plaques- more specific to Alzheimer’s, although seen in Down syndrome too), neurofibrillary tangles (made of cytoskeletal elements - found in several other disease) , neuronal loss (cortex and hippocampus), synaptic loss, granulovascular
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Alzheimer.docx - Learning Issue: Alzheimers Dementia Name:...

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