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Unformatted text preview: Generalized tonic clonic seizure ● seizure- an abnormal paroxysmal discharge of cerebral neurons due to cortical hyperexcitability ● there are two types of seizures: partial and generalized ● generalized seizures- probably begin in the thalamus and other subcortical structures, but on EEG, they appear to start simultaneously in both cerebral hemispheres ○ symptoms manifest bilaterally in the body and are always associated with loss of consciousness ○ partial seizures can secondarily generalize, but they are not included in the category of generalized seizure ● generalized seizures can be atonic, tonic, clonic, tonic-clonic, myoclonic, or absence based on symptoms and EEG ● generalized tonic-clonic seizure is also called grand mal and are present in several epilepsy conditions ● most generalized seizures are idiopathic, but there is a genetic component to some types of epilepsy Pathophysiology ● 3 mechanisms hypothesized: ○ abnormal response of hyperexcitable cortex to initially normal thalamic input ○ primary subcortical trigger ○ abnormal cortical innervation from subcortical structures ● a seizure is the result of a paroxysmal high-voltage electrical discharge of susceptible neurons...
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- Fall '10
- Seizure, tonic clonic seizure, tonic-clonic seizure, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, tonic phase